Although a resolution to begin trade with Korea was initially defeated in Congress, it does pass. (2, 21)
Anchoring below Pyongyang in the Taedong River, an American merchant ship named the General Sherman is attacked by Koreans. Its crew is massacred. Americans immediately want to investigate the incident and to speak to the Korean king, both to no avail. (2,21)
Sent to investigate the General Sherman incident, Commander Robert W. Schufeldt and his USS Wachusetts crew sails from China to western Korea. Unfortunately, inclement weather ends the investigations. (21)
The USS Shenandoahs crew, including commander John C. Febiger, sail to the Taedong Rivers mouth. There local authorities communicate with them, giving them a letter. A response to Schufeldts investigation, the letter states that once provoked, the local population became a mob force, killing the General Shermans crew. (21)
American forces attack forts by the Yom-ha River in Korea. Over 250 Koreans die in the fighting. (21)
Under orders from Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, the American Minister to China Frederick F. Low goes to Korea to secure a treaty protecting shipwrecked sailors stranded on Korean shores. (21)
Dropping anchor near the Han Rivers mouth are five American war ships. (2)
An American squadron of gunboats and warships sails for Korea. Among those aboard is American Minister to China Frederick F. Low. Near Inchon, Low and members of his staff meet with local officials but no treaty, commercial or otherwise, is signed. (21)
While sailing to the Yom-ha/Salee River, an American naval observation team receives incoming fire from Korean shore batteries. The American ships respond, silencing the Korean batteries. When Korean authorities refuse to take responsibility for the attack, Low orders an attack on Korean fortifications on the Salee River. As a result, American forces destroy or capture five forts. In the fighting, Koreans sustain around 250 KIAs, and the Americans sustain 3 KIAs and 3 WIAs. Still, Korean authorities refuse to begin talks with Low. (21)
Following a bombardment, American Marines storm ashore, establish a beachhead, and overrun Korean forces guarding Seouls sea approaches. In recognition for their actions, one sailor and six Marines are awarded a Medal of Honor. (2)
The mission a failure since Korean authorities still refuse to talk with Low, the American war ships withdraw from Korea. (2,21)
America officially opens trade with the Kingdom of Korea. Originally sent to investigate the General Sherman incident in 1866, Commodore Robert W. Schufeldt signs the agreement for the Americans. The United States and Korea sign the Treaty of Chemulpo. (2,21,29)
The first American officers, three, arrive in Korea to serve as military advisors. (29)
The king of Korea proclaims that America is like an elder brother to his kingdom. (2)
Russia is defeated by the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War. American President Theodore Roosevelt aids in the negotiations which ends with the Treaty of Portsmouth. Under the treatys guidelines, Russia accepts Japans interests in Korea. The Korean king is coerced into allowing the Japanese to declare his nation one of its protectorates. (2,21,32,39)
Korea is annexed as a colony of the Japanese. (2,18,21,29,32)
Korean Americans appeal to President Woodrow Wilson to aid a movement toward Korean independence from Japan. Wilson does not respond. (21)
Truman receives Stalins approval for General Order Number One which divides Korea at the 38th parallel into a sphere of Russian occupation in northern Korea and a sphere of American occupation in southern Korea. (21,A)
At the Cairo Conference, the Big Three (Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin) support restoring Koreas independence "in due course." Korean nationalist are angered by this clause. (1,21,A1)
The United Nations is formed. (18)
Koreas future is again mentioned by the Big Three at the Potsdam Conference. (11)
Russia declares war on the Japanese. (2,18,31,40)
At the War Office, colonels Dean Rusk and Charles Bonesteel are instructed to come up with a dividing line in Korea between the Russian and American occupation spheres. They suggest the 38th parallel. (17,B)
Russian forces invade Korea. (2)
World War II officially ends when the Japanese formally announce their surrender. Continuing their advance, Russian forces near Kaesong. (2,40)
Aboard the Missouri, the American Pacific commander, Gen. Douglas MacArthur oversees the Japanese surrender. General Order One, issued by MacArthur, gives details for the Japanese surrender in East Asia; in Korea, Japanese forces above the 38th parallel are to surrender to Russian forces and Japanese forces below the 38th parallel are to surrender to American forces. (41,2,21)
US Army occupations forces land in Korea to disarm and repatriate Japanese nationalists. (15,29,21,39)
Japanese forces south of the 38th parallel surrender to American Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge. (2,29)
Although no elections are held, the Soviets proclaim Kim Il Sung as the leader in northern Korea. (2)
The Russian occupational forces stage a pro-Kim Il Sung rally in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang (1)
In Moscow, a joint Russian-American Commission meets to discuss Korea. They agree to a five-year trusteeship of Korea. (2,21)
According to Lt. Gen. Hodge, Russian forces are building fortifications along the 38th parallel. (2)
Joseph McCarthy is elected to the Senate. (28,32,17)
Winston Churchill delivers his "Iron Curtain" speech. (11)
The State Department decides that if conditions arise, American forces will not defend Korea. (21)
The Department of Defense, National Security Council, and Central Intelligence Agency are created under the National Security Act. (2,21)
The House Un-American Activities Committee is formed to investigate communists and their influence in American society. (38)
General Headquarters, Far East Command is officially established. (2)
The Truman Doctrine is proclaimed. Issuing Executive Order 9835 which creates a Federal Employee Loyalty Program, Truman authorizes the screening of federal employees for any signs of communism. (11,38,21,39)
Kim Il Sung and other members of his government meet with Stalin to discuss Russian military aid to North Korea. (3)
Acting Secretary of State Dean Rusk receives word from then Secretary of War Robert Patterson that American forces should withdraw from Korea as soon as possible. (39)
The Marshall Plan is announced. In his Foreign Affairs article, George Kennan first writes of "containment." (11,39,38)
The Air Force is established as its own branch of the armed forces. (2,21)
In Hungary, Soviets first purge all anti-communist leaders and then rig elections, insuring a pro-Soviet government. (38)
Physicist Klaus Fuchs is charged with being a Russian spy. (17)
Due to American efforts, the UN General Assemblys agenda includes the issue of Korean independence. (2,21)
The Joint Chiefs of Staff conclude that the Korean peninsula is not of vital importance to Americas security. (21,5)
The UN General Assembly passes a resolution sponsored by the American delegation. It calls for a single government in Korea. As a result, a UN Temporary Commission (UNTCOK) on Korea is created to oversee the election of a united Korean government. (2,21,39)
The UN Temporary Commission on Korea arrives in Seoul. (2)
The commander of Russian occupation forces in northern Korea refuses to allow the UN Temporary Commission on Korea into his territory. As a result, UN-sponsored elections are not held in northern Korea. (21)
The communists overthrow the government in Czechoslovakia. Conceding that the Russians will probably overtake all of Korea, the JCS nevertheless recommends withdrawing all American forces from Korea. Russian occupation forces formally activate the North Korean Peoples Army. (11,21,38)
The Marshall Plan is approved. (11)
Truman approves NCS-8 which states that America will help southern Korea with its armed forces and economy, but will not defend it against a communist attack from the north. (21)
Although the UN Temporary Commission on Korea is refused admittance into northern Korea, elections in southern Korea are held nonetheless. Southern Koreans elect a National Assembly and Syngman Rhee is chosen as president. (2,21,39)
The Russians begin the Berlin Blockade. The US responds with the Berlin Airlift. (32)
The first session of the Republic of Koreas (ROKs) National Assembly is held. (10)
President Truman issues an executive order to desegregate the armed forces. The Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Forces in established. (30,38,2)
Whittaker Chambers and Elizabeth Bentley appear before the House Un-American Activities Committee. They both declare that the State Department has been infiltrated by communists. The hearings continue on through August. (32,17)
With the establishment of the Republic of Korea, the American occupation in Korea officially ends. Rhee is inaugurated as the ROKs first president. (2,10,21,29)
In northern Korea, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea is created with Kim Il Sung as its premier. (1,2,3,10,21)
American military forces begin withdrawing from South Korea. Kim Il Sung declares his governments jurisdiction over the entire Korean peninsula. (2,29)
ROK forces brutally put down a communist-led uprising. (21)
Truman wins his presidential re-election bid. (17,30)
The UN General Assembly passes a resolution which declares the ROK government the lawful Korean government since UNTCOK was able to observe its elections. A high-level, small Russian military mission has arrived in the North Korean capital. (39,21)
By this date, all Russian forces have been withdrawn from North Korea, according to the Russians themselves. (2,21)
Kim Il Sung makes two trips to Moscow this year to request military assistance. Russia does send much military aid (technology, arms, ammunition, and varying other supplies) to North Korea. In addition, Kim and Stalin sign a "treaty of friendship." (3)
From his headquarters in Tokyo, Japan, Gen. Douglas MacArthur gives his recommendations to the JCS: although ROK military forces would not be able to repel a North Korean invasion, American forces should not defend South Korea. In fact, American combat forces should be removed from the Korean peninsula immediately. (21)
Dean Acheson becomes secretary of state. (17)
MacArthur defines American defense perimeters which exclude Korea. (32)
NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, is formed. (11,2,39)
Stalin finally ends the Berlin Blockade. (11)
Concluding that America should respond to a North Korean invasion, the State Department submits this matter to the United Nations. (21)
US Army occupation forces in Korea have withdrawn. (15,21,11,C)
Upon Trumans approval, a Provisional American Military Advisory Group to South Korea is established. (29)
The Provisional American Military Advisory Group to South Korea is officially called KMAG. KMAG is activated. (2,29,D)
The communists under Mao Zedong take over mainland China after Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek fled to Formosa, present day Taiwan. (1)
Truman announces that the American monopoly on atomic devices has ended; the Soviets have exploded their own device. (2,32,17,E)
The communist Peoples Republic of China is officially proclaimed. (11,31,39)
The ROK Air Force is activated. (21)
Secretary of State Acheson announces that America will not recognize the Peoples Republic of China. (32)
The last Nationalist Chinese forces leave mainland China for Formosa. (2)
Truman approves NSC-48/2, which, among other things, sets American Far East policy. It states that America must prevent the spread of communist power from the mainland of Asia into the Pacific. (21)
The UN Security Council, which includes 15 member nations, is formed. (18)
In the early months of the year, border clashes occur along the 38th parallel. (21)
The Truman administration announces that Chiang Kai-sheks government will no longer receive American aid. Angered over Nationalist Chinas seating (not communist Chinas seating) at the UN, the Russians begin a boycott. (1,11,32)
To date, the North Korean Army numbers 110,000 and is quickly growing. (3)
In a speech to the National Press Club, Secretary of State Dean Acheson leaves South Korea out of Americas defensive perimeter in the Far East. (5,11,21,30,31,32,17,21,39)
Chinese forces attack the American consulate offices in Peking. (32)
The House of Representatives defeats an aid bill for Korea. (21)
First accused of being a communist by Whittaker Chambers in July of 1948, Alger Hiss is convicted of perjury. Hiss had worked in the State Department. (32,39)
Truman announces that he has authorized research for the development of a hydrogen bomb. (11,32,21,E1)
Klaus Fuchs confesses to being a Russian spy; he admits he gave atomic secrets to the Russians. He is sentenced to a prison term of 14 years. (27,39,17)
Beginning his rabid anti-communist crusade with a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, Senator Joseph McCarthy announces that 205 communists are supposedly working in the State Department. (32,38,17,39)
The Russians and Chinese sign the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. (21,11)
February-April Kim Il Sung visits Moscow to win Stalins approval for his Korean reunification plan. Stalin does give his support, especially since Kim believes that Americans wont defend South Korea. Stalin begins to send military assistance in support of the planned North Korean invasion. (3,11)
The KMAG commander concedes that North Korean forces could defeat ROK forces and that the communists could overtake the Republic of Korea. (21)
Spring American intelligence discovers that elements of the Russian Air Force have been sent to the coastline of mainland China. It is feared that the communists may attack Formosa. (11)
Completed, NSC-68 proposals include the tripling of the American defense budget in response to the idea that the communism has become global, monolithic movement. (11,21,39)
Stalin tells Mao that North Korea and China must work together. After visiting Moscow, Kim visits Beijing and gains Mao Zedongs support. Mao believes that Americans will not come to South Koreas defense. Soviet weaponry continues to arrive via freighters. At the end of this month, the North Korean Army (Korean Peoples Army), along with their Russian military advisers, state that their forces are ready to concentrate on the 38th for the invasion. With Kims insistence, the date of invasion is June 25. Helping to advance Kims invasion scheme, Stalin begins replacing his military advisors in North Korea with combat-experienced personnel. These new Russian forces to North Korea draft a "Preemptive Strike Operational Plan," what becomes known as the "6-25" plan or the plan to invade South Korea. (3,11)
In a U.S. News and World Report interview, the Chairman of the Senates Foreign Relations Committee Tom Connally states that American forces will not defend South Korea if an aggressor strikes against the nation. (21)
Far East Air Forces Intelligence Section states that an invasion by North Korean forces will defeat South Korea. (21)
Although it believes that the North Koreans had contemplated an invasion into South Korea, the CIA concludes that the assault had been called off and Kim will instead rely on subversion and propaganda. Yet, the CIA concludes that if North Koreans do choose to invade South Korea, they will overtake northern South Korea, including the South Korean capital. (11,21)
Mao orders some of his army corps to deploy to the Strait of Formosa. (11)
At 0400, North Korean troops invade South Korea. The UN Security [Korean time+] Council obviously absent the Russian delegate, demands that the North Koreans withdraw. At first reluctant to do so, the North Korean invasion persuades Truman to approve NSC-68. (1,2,11,12,16,21,34)
While relaxing at his Independence, Missouri home, President Harry S. Truman [American time] receives a phone call at 8:00 PM from his Secretary of State Dean Acheson. Acheson informs him of the North Korean invasion. (24,21)
John Muccio, the American ambassador to Korea, orders American dependents in South Korea and the US Embassys nonessential personnel to evacuate to Japan. Fighters of the 5th Air Force begin providing cover for the US Embassy in Seoul. Both American naval and air forces are ordered to support ROK ground forces and protect American civilian evacuees. (2,18,29,21)
JUNE 27 - SEPTEMBER 15, 1950 UN DEFENSIVE (2,19)
June 27 North Korean forces occupy Chunchon and capture Kimpo airfield. Since the North Koreans have refused to withdraw, the UN Security Council requests that UN member nations aid South Korea in repelling the invading North Koreans. President Harry S. Truman issues a "war message" to Americans and declares that American naval and air forces will assist South Korea. Hoping to keep the Nationalist and communist Chinese from attacking each other, Truman sends the 7th Fleet to the Formosa Straits. In addition, Truman sends a dispatch to Stalin assuring him of Americas limited objectives and hopes that the Russians will help restore peace in the Far East. He also allocates more aid, military and otherwise, to the French fighting the Viet Minh. The Armed Services Committee of the Senate begins action to call up reserve units. The 8th Squadrons B-26s deliver the initial UN air strikes against enemy objectives. F-80s from the 35th Fighter Bomber Squadron, 8th Fighter Bomber Wing first see combat and down four enemy Ilyushin 11-10s. In shooting down a North Korean Yak fighter with his F-82, Lt. William F. Hudson distinguishes himself as the pilot who shot down the first enemy plane of the war. Giving information to air units and people on the ground, elements of the 512th Recon Squadron fly the first weather recon mission over Korea. Sent to investigate the situation in South Korea, an American survey team under Brig. Gen. John H. Church, ADCOM, arrives at Suwon. (1,2,11,12,16,32,33,34,35,21,39)
North Korean forces capture the south Korean capital of Seoul. [Korean time] (2,3,8,9,12,20,21,1,16,17)
Mao tells his State Council that the Americans have invaded Asia. ADCOMs commander Brig. Gen. Church reports to MacArthur that American troops must help restore the South Korean-North Korean border. In the chaos surrounding the North Korean invasion, many of the ROK Army troops are trapped north of the Han River when its own engineers blow the bridges over the river too soon. (11,21,2,39)
At the Suwan Airfield, Americans sustain their first casualties of the war (5) when members of the 507th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion, Detachment X, defend against enemy aircraft. The initial American naval shore bombardment occurs when the USS Juneau fires on Mukho. Eighteen B-26s from the 3rd Bombardment Group, 5th Air Force strike the Heijo Airfield near Pyongyang. In this attack alone, the enemy loses 25 aircraft. The UN Security Council votes to militarily assist South Korea. Responding, Great Britain sends its Far Eastern Fleet to assist South Korea. At a press conference, President Truman agrees with a reporter when asked if the action in Korea could best be described as a "police action." Truman approves the sending of American ground forces to Korea to guard Pusan and maintain communications. (34,26,21,2)
President Harry S. Truman authorizes the use of American ground forces for combat, to defend South Korea. He also authorizes a naval blockade of the Korean coastline, and the US Air Forces bombing of North Korea. Truman meets with members of Congress to detail his decisions concerning the American response to the North Korean invasion. Congress passes an extension of the selective service. Congress also votes to give the commander in chief the power to call National Guard and reserve units to active duty. Truman signs the bill into law, Public Law 599. (1,2,6,9,12,16,21,30,32,33,39)
On the homefront, the FBI arrests Julius Rosenberg on the suspicion that he is a Russian spy. (27)
The first American ground forces, members of the 24th Division (Task Force Smith), begin to arrive in South Korea. (1,2,6,9,12,16,21,30,32,33,39,34)
The wars only surface naval engagement occurs when the USS Juneau, HMS Jamaica, and the HMS Black Swan engage North Korean naval forces. The North Korean forces lose two motor boats and three torpedo boats. In addition, 2 North Korean troops are captured. (2,12,21,34)
North Korean forces capture Inchon. Air strikes from the USS Valley Forge and HMS Triumph begin against North Korean airfields and the North Korean capital. They mark the first carrier-based air strikes for UN forces in the war. The Valley Forges AD-4 Skyraiders and F9F Panthers first go into combat in this war with these strikes. In fact, two American pilots from VF-51, Air Group 5 shoot down two enemy Yak-9 aircraft, the Navys first kills in the war. Alarmed that they were not notified or consulted by the Truman administration concerning Americas response to the North Korean invasion, Congress nevertheless does give its support to Trumans actions. (2,25,21,35,34)
By this date, Maj. Gen. William F. Dean, who is already the commander of the 24th [Korean time] Infantry Division, has assumed command of the United States Army Forces in Korea (USAFIK). Overwhelmed by North Korean forces at Osan, Task Force Smith withdraws but does delay the enemy advance. This is the first ground force engagement for American troops. As a result of the first week of American ground fighting, a bill is passed calling up the Marine Reserve, and ninety-two National Guard units. (2,9,12,20,21,16,1,17,34)
The 34th Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division troops engage North Korean forces at Pyongtaek and Chonan. (2,34)
The UN Security Council appoints Truman (the US) as its executive agent to fight aggression in Korea. Authorizing the use of the UN flag, it also recommends the establishment of a UN Command. (1,2,12,16,39)
American general Douglas MacArthur is appointed by Truman to become the first UN commander in the Korean War. (2,21,F)
North Korean forces are delayed after clashes with 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Infantry Division forces at Chochiwon. (2,34)
The 25th Infantry Division arrives in Korea from Japan. (2,F1)
At Chonui, UN forces discover that the North Korean forces have murdered six 24th Division soldiers. Rendered defenseless by their captors, their hands were bound behind their backs. (12,G)
Around Yokohama, the 1st Cavalry Division begins loading for Korea. (2)
Elements of the 19th and 34th Infantry Regiments of the 24th Infantry Division engage North Koreans forces at the Kum River. As a result, the enemy advance is delayed. (34,2)
Near Taejon and Konji, American forces are attacked by two North Korean divisions. The commander of the 8th Army, Lt. Gen. Walton H. Walker, is given command of all American and ROK Army forces on the Korean peninsula. The 20th Air Forces 19th Bombardment Wing delivers the first B-29 strike of the war. (40,2,16,33,35,21,H)
The first air strike from Japan occurs when ten B-29s from the 92nd Bombardment Group strike North Korean targets. After an investigation, the Senates Tydings Commission issues its findings - McCarthys pronouncements of communists in the State Department are both a hoax and a fraud. (34,40,I)
The American 25th Infantry and the 1st Cavalry arrive in South Korea. (1)
North Korean forces cross the Kum River. ROK forces are transferred to the UN commander Gen. Douglas MacArthur. From Okinawa, the 29th Regimental Combat Team leaves for Korea. (2,3,16,J)
July 8 - August 30
North Korean forces encounter UN delaying actions. (12,K)
Because they have been placed under the UN command, the 8th Army now commands all ROK ground forces. The first 2nd Infantry Division soldiers leave Seattle, heading for Korea. (2,29,21)
Task Force 90 lands at Pohang. Under "Operation Blueheart," the 1st Cavalry lands there. The 25th Infantry Division also arrives in Korea. (2,12,16,33,21)
President Truman gives his secretary of defense the authority to call up the National Guard and Organized Reserve. As a result, he orders the Organized Marine Corps Reserve units to immediately report for active duty. On August 15th, the Volunteer Marine Corps Reserve is to report. (2)
Maj. Gen. Dean and his 24th Infantry Division forces make a heroic stand in Taejon but they must evacuate the burning city. North Korean forces occupy Taejon. Still, American forces have delayed the enemy advance. Separated from his forces, General Dean is missing in action. (2,3,12,16,30,29,21,40,L)
After this date, UN air forces virtually have air supremacy in the Korean skies. American forces stage the first successful counterattack and drive the North Korean forces out of Yechon. (2,34)
The Department of the Army calls for its reserve officers to voluntarily report for active duty. (2)
Fifth Air Force Headquarters moves to Korea from Japan. In Tokyo, the headquarters for the UN Command is established. (2)
American naval aircraft complete the first close air, emergency support missions. Near Chinju, the 29th Regimental Combat Team is committed to battle. Once in mothball status, the USS Princeton is returned to duty, to be manned primarily by naval reserve members. The 5th Regimental Combat Team leaves Hawaii for Korea. (21,2,34)
Signing Public Law 624, Truman extends armed forces enlistments for a period of one year. Fifty thousand receive their draft notices and are to report in September for their training. (2)
8th Army commander Walton H. Walker delivers his "stand or die" speech. (2,21,M)
Arriving in Korea is the 5th Regimental Combat Team. The first medium tank engagement occurs near Chinju when Lt. Samuel Fowlers forces encounter North Korean forces. Although the American forces delay the enemy, North Korean forces still capture Chinju. Gen. Douglas MacArthur and members of his staff fly to visit Chiang Kai-shek in Formosa. As a result, Averell Harriman is later sent to emphasize Americas "Neutralize Formosa" policy with MacArthur. A Security Council resolution, which calls for the UN Command to be responsible for civilian support and relief, is passed. (5,20,21,2)
The 24th Infantry Divisions 19th and 29th Infantry Regiments engage the North Koreans in the Battle of the Notch. Elements of the 2nd Infantry Division arrive in Korea. Russia ends its boycott by sending its delegate, Jacob Malik, back to the UN where he takes over the Security Council presidency. (34,16,2,33)
Russian delegate to the UN Jacob Malik accuses the United States of planning a war in Korea, of murdering Korean civilians in air raids, and of trying to enslave the world. American air forces bomb territory in China close to the Yalu River. Truman asks for Congressional support of the Foreign Agents Registration Act, a measure requiring those who have been trained in subversive tactics and espionage from political parties or foreign governments to register with the federal government. Once planning an invasion of Taiwan for this month, Mao has decided to call it off. On the homefront, the FBI arrests Julius Rosenbergs wife Ethel for spying. (6,3,11,27)
Arriving in Korea is the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade. Activated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, I Corps receives its orders to Korea. (16,33,2)
VMF-214 launches the initial Marine air strike. Elements of the Army Volunteer and Inactive Reserve are called up for active duty; thirty thousand are to report in September for active duty. (2)
The Pusan Perimeter is established as American and ROK forces hold against the North Korean forces. The first air-evacuation of American casualties is completed by Marine VMO-6 helicopters. Mao tells his Politburo that China must aid North Korea and intervene as a volunteer army. The Russians call for all foreign troops in Korea to withdraw. (1,2,9,11,12,21,34)
American forces defend the Naktong/Pusan Perimeter. (34)
In Tokyo, MacArthur meets with members of the JCS and Truman administration to discuss a possible landing at Inchon. (20)
The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade enters battle at Chinju. (2)
The fury of anti-communism is obviously felt in Washington, D.C.; in submitting a measure to Congress, Truman supports harsher treatment of spies and aliens. (27)
The first Battle of the Naktong Bulge occurs. Elements of the 24th Infantry Division, 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, and 25th Infantry Division hold against North Korean attacks. (2,34,N)
1st Marine Division elements sail for Korea. Activated at Fort Sheridan, Illinois, IX Corps receives its orders for Korea. The Air Force Reserves 437th Troop Carrier Wing and the 452nd Light Bombardment Wing are called to active duty. In addition to increasing Army strength to 1,081,000, Truman approves the call of the 28th, 43rd, 40th and 45th National Guard units, as well as the 196th and 278th Regimental Combat Teams. Also, 7862 Army reserve lieutenants and captains are called up, ordered to report in September for active duty. Introduced to Congress on this date, the Internal Security Act or what becomes known as the McCarran Act is eventually passed. This act states that communists are a national security danger and they must register with the Attorney General. In addition, communists are denied certain government jobs, particularly defense jobs. Among the other laws passed in this act, likely saboteurs and spies can be detained. Communist party members and officers must also put labels on their propaganda identifying it as communist material. (27,2)
In the Battle of Pohang, North Korean forces first seize the city. American naval forces evacuate ROK forces. Eventually, ROK forces retake Pohang in this battle. (2)
The planning for "Operation Chromite," the Inchon landing, begins. (21)
8th Army begins the recruitment of personnel into KATUSA, the Korean Augmentation to the US Army. Despite the UN holding actions, Kim Il Sung continues to push his forces to occupy Pusan by this date. (3,21)
West of Taegu, the Battle of the Bowling Alley occurs. The 27th and 23rd Infantry Regiments, along with ROK forces, decimate North Korean forces. (2,34,O)
In Japan, the X Corps is activated for the Inchon invasion. The 7th Marines 3rd Battalion leaves for Korea from Crete. (2)
Two members of the JCS, Forrest Sherman and J. Lawton Collins, meet with MacArthur to discuss the amphibious landing at Inchon. At Camp Pendelton, California, elements of the 7th Marine Regiments are activated. Near Waegwon on Hill 303, UN forces discover the bodies of twenty-six 5th Cavalry Regiment soldiers who had been bound and shot by the North Korean Army. MacArthur openly criticizes the Truman administrations Formosa policy in a letter to the VFW annual convention. (17,2,5,12,32,35,34,P)
The first large scale tank-to-tank battle of the Korean War occurs at Taegu. Elements of the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 27th Regiment (under Lt. Cols. Gilbert Check and Gordon Murch) hold against enemy tanks. (21)
MacArthur openly blames Kim Il Sung and his military commanders for the atrocities. (12)
Members of the Truman administration and the JCS again meet with MacArthur in Toyko to discuss the Inchon landing. Seventy-seven thousand more Army Organized Reserve Corps members are called up for active duty. (2,21)
North Korean forces capture Gen. Dean who was separated from his forces in the July battle for Taejon. Wandering the Korean hills for 36 days, he had hoped to reach the lines of friendly forces. He is the highest ranking communist-held POW of the war. (2,21)
After X Corps is activated, MacArthur appoints Maj. Gen. Edward M. "Ned" Almond to command it. The 63rd Field Artillery Battalion and the 34th Infantry Regiment is replaced by the 5th Regimental Combat Team. To be rebuilt, they move to Japan. (2,21)
Leaving Puerto Rico for Korea is the 3rd Infantry Divisions 65th Infantry Regiment. (2)
The JCS approves MacArthurs proposal for the Inchon invasion.
Coming from Hong Kong, the British 27th Commonwealth Brigade arrives to help American and ROK forces. (1)
August 30 The remainder of the 3rd Infantry Division sails for Korea. (2)
August 31 - September 19
The Second Battle of the Naktong Bulge occurs as elements of the 1st Cavalry Division, 2nd Infantry Division, 24th Infantry Division, 1st Provisional Marine Brigade, and 25th Infantry Division battle North Korean forces. (34,Q) Fall Congress approves a draft of doctors. (21)
Sailing for Korea are the 7th Marine Regiment and elements of the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. (2)
On this day, 8th Army forces fight five defensive battles against North Korean forces. North Korean forces threaten Taeju. (21,16,33)
In another first of the war, a H-5 successfully rescues a downed pilot behind enemy lines. In a three-day battle, the 25th Division defeats enemy forces at Masan. (2,33)
President Truman signs the Defense Production Act. Under this act, he has the authority to grant loans to production companies, impose credit restrictions and rationing, and control wages and prices. (6)
North Korean forces capture Pohang. Sailing for Korea is the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team. (21,2)
To prepare and embark for the Inchon invasion, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade is withdrawn from the Pusan Perimeter fighting and reassembled in Pusan. (2)
Truman signs the Revenue Act which raises taxes to increase the defense budget, among other things. (6)
On the homefront, the Womens Christian Temperance Union stops the "Beer Issue." (12)
Absorbed into the 1st Marine Division, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade is disestablished. At Taegu, becoming operational is the I Corps. (2)
In "Operation Chromite," X Corps elements cut the North Korean lines by firsts attacking Wolmi-do and successfully landing at Inchon. (34,2,9,17,1,21,12,16,20,8,33,39)
SEPTEMBER 16 - NOVEMBER 2, 1950 UN OFFENSIVE (2,19)
The 8th Army begins its breakout of the Pusan Perimeter. (2,21,8,33,12,39,R)
UN forces discover a grizzly sight at Taejon; up to 7,000 South Korean civilians, 42 American soldiers, and 17 ROK soldiers had been murdered by the North Korean forces. All of their bodies had been dumped in shallow trenches. (2,12,34,S)
The 5th Marine Regiment captures Kimpo airfield. As a result, Corsairs from the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing soon land and conduct combat operations. Landing at Inchon, the 7th Marine Regiment rejoins the 1st Marine Division. (21,39,34,2,T)
Lead elements of the 7th Infantry Division, the 32nd Infantry Regiment, land at Inchon. On the American homefront, the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Armed Forces is formed and holds its first meeting. (2,20)
The secretary of defense, Louis Johnson, resigns from office. (2)
Crossing the Han River is the 1st Marine Division. (2,34)
American forces seize Tabu-dong. First under Joint Task Force Seven, all on-shore forces around Inchon and Seoul are placed under X Corps command. On the homefront, George C. Marshall becomes the new defense secretary. (21,2)
At Miryang, becoming operational is IX Corps. (2)
Because of stiff North Korean resistance, Gen. "Ned" Almond calls in the Armys 7th Division to aid the Marines advance toward Seoul. (1)
The 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team arrives at Kimpo airfield. (2,U)
The 24th Division captures Kumchon. Although the fighting in Seoul continues, MacArthur announces that UN forces have retaken the South Korean capital. With the success of the Inchon landing, the American Joint Chiefs of Staff decide to permit UN military operations into North Korea. (1,21,2,V)
Near Tanchon, the USS Brush sustains damage after it hits a mine. (34)
The 24th Division captures Taejon. X Corps and 8th Army forces link up near Suwon. Responding to the JCS recommendation which is backed by the Defense and State Departments, Truman approves military operations into North Korea. Hoping to dissuade the Chinese from intervening, the Joint Chiefs of Staff order General MacArthur to send only ROK forces near the Yalu River. (4,20,30,32,21,2,39)
By this date, X Corps has retaken Seoul. (3,10,12,20,34,W)
UN forces sustain 21 KIAs after the Magpie, a minesweeper, hits a mine off of the North Korean coastline. As the North Korean Army disintegrates, Kim Il Sung sends an urgent plea to Stalin for military assistance. If direct Russian aid is not possible, Kim requests the creation of volunteer units from other communists nations, especially China. Secretary of Defense Marshall tells MacArthur that his forces should feel unhampered tactically and strategically in their march north from the 38th parallel. MacArthur and Rhee enter Seoul, and MacArthur ceremoniously returns the South Korean capital to its president. (34,2,3,11,16,21)
Twenty-seven Americans are wounded and another five die as a result of the USS Manfields hitting a mine. Maos government begins sending warnings that they will not tolerate "imperialists" invading their neighbors. (34,12)
Task Force 90 lands at Wonsan. (2)
As the battle lines move closer to the Chinese border, UN artillery fires into Chinese territory. (3)
ROK forces begin to cross the 38th parallel into North Korea. MacArthur calls for a North Korean surrender. Stalin requests that Mao send in a "volunteer" force to help North Korea. All elements of the 3rd Infantry Divisions 65th Infantry Regiment have arrived in Korea. (1,11,12,16,30,33,17,2,39)
Mao decides that his forces will intervene. In a telegram to Stalin, Mao states that his forces will enter the war as a "volunteer army" but also mentions the potential consequences of entering the war against the Americans. (4,11,X)
Although Mao has already decided to intervene, the Chinese send one more warning to the American forces: Chinese Preimier Zhou Enlai calls Indian ambassador Panikker to a meeting where Enlai gives him a warning to pass onto the Americans - if American forces cross into North Korea, Chinese forces will intervene. (4,2,Y)
Stalin tells Mao that together, China and Russia are stronger than and can defeat Great Britain and America. In other words, he does not fear a war with America. (11,32)
With President Trumans backing, Great Britains delegate Kenneth Younger introduces a resolution to the UN General Assembly. The resolution, which calls for the establishment of a unified Korean government through elections, passes. American forces soon begin crossing into North Korea. Mao tells Stalin that he plans to eventually deploy nine divisions to the defense of North Korea. (4,9,11,21,12,20,30,17,2,39)
Mao send orders for the formation of Chinese Peoples Volunteers, and informs Kim Il Sung that his forces will intervene in Kims behalf. (4,16,17)
Elements of the 1st Cavalry Division cross the 38th parallel. Chinese leaders Lin Biao and Zhou Enlai meet with Stalin to discuss Chinas current position in regards to the fighting. They also discuss providing a sanctuary for the North Korean forces. MacArthur receives a JCS directive authorizing him to continue action in North Korea if Chinese forces intervene as long as, in his judgment, his forces have "a reasonable chance of success." (34,11,21,2,39)
The 1st Marine Division leaves Inchon, sailing for Wonsan. (2)
ROK forces have captured Wonsan. (2,12,20,33,21,39) [American time]
In Wonsan Harbor, two minesweepers, the Pledge and the Pirate, sink after hitting mines. The Chinese plan of battle is finalized: Chinese forces of the 38th, 39th, and 40th Field Armies and elements of the 41st Field Army will cross into the war zone at Andong. (34,1,9)
Stalin promises Zhou Enlai that the Chinese forces will receive military assistance from Russia. (11)
The first Chinese forces cross the Yalu into North Korea. (1,2,12,Z)
After a 350-mile march, the 7th Infantry Division leaves Pusan, sailing for the eastern coast of Korea. (2)
President Truman and UN commander Gen. Douglas MacArthur meet for a conference on Wake Island. At this same time, Chinese generals Chen Yi and Lin Pao move their forces across the Yalu River.(5,12,2,9,16,33,12,39)
ROK forces occupy Hungnam and Hamhung. (16,33,AA)
The 1st Cavalry Division becomes the first American unit in the North Korean capital. (2)
The 8th Army, including the 1st Cavalry Division and the 1st ROK Division, capture the North Korean capital of Pyongyang. (1,2,9,12,16,33,21,39,34)
In the first of its two parachute, aerial assaults, the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team strikes at Sukchon-Sunchon. The bodies of 75 GIs, who were executed by the North Koreans, are found at Sunchon. Reports arriving at UN/Far East Forces Headquarters in Tokyo state that Chinese artillery batteries have crossed into North Korea. American planes bomb the Chinese columns and supposedly kill Maos eldest son, Maj. Mao Anying. X Corps Headquarters moves to Wonsan. (2,16,33,21,34,BB)
Under Kim Il Sungs direction, a new North Korean capital is established at Sinuiji. (2)
Another grizzly sight is discovered: 128 American troops are found executed at Kunsang. (12,34)
MacArthur sends non-ROK forces closer to the Yalu River. In response, the Joint Chiefs of Staff remind MacArthur of their September 27 directive. In his defense, MacArthur refers to Marshalls September 29 message. Crossing the Chongchon River are the 27th Commonwealth Brigade and the 24th Division. (1,12,20,39)
Chinese forces begin their first phase offensive. ROK forces fight Chinese forces near the Yalu. They capture a Chinese soldier at Unson and report the capture to UN Forces headquarters. The prisoner of war is taken to Pyongyang for questioning where he warns of a large number of Chinese troops entering the war zone. Chinese forces attack elements of the X Corps. (34,1,16,2)
Some ROK units, including the 6th ROK Division, have completed their mission by reaching the Yalu River. ROK I Corps 26 Regiment captures Chinese soldiers at Sudong. Landing at Wonsan, X Corps elements, including the 1st Marine Division, continue their assault into North Korea. (5,9,12,20,2,33,CC)
Although 2 Chinese POWs are interrogated, their warnings that the Chinese have intervened are ignored. (1,2)
Landing at Iwon is the 7th Infantry Division. (2)
Ordered to replace the ROK I Corps in the Changjin (Chosin) Reservoir area, the 1st Marine Division moves out from Wonsan. (2)
The 24th Division, I Corps arrives at its furthest north point, between Sonchon and Chongo-Dong. (12,DD)
The UN advance is halted by the first Chinese offensive. Attacked at Unsan, the 8th
Army withdraws across the Chongchon River. Chinese forces decimate the ROK 6th Division at Yongdu. (1,16,20,33,17)
Two Chinese divisions attack and almost completely destroy the ROK 15th Infantry Regiment, 1st Division and the US 8th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division at Unsan. By this time, six Chinese armies have intervened and are attacking both fronts of the UN forces. The Chinese Air Force intervenes with the entrance of the first Russian MiG-15s. From Hamhung, the 7th Marine Regiment begins moving toward the Chosin Reservoir. Assistant Secretary of State Dean Rusk is informed by the Director of the Office of Chinese Affairs O. Edward Clubb that Chinese intervention has been confirmed. (2,9,12,16,35,21,39,EE)
Chinese forces clash with 7th Marine forces near Sudong. (21,FF)
A fortnight after Chinese forces enter North Korea, the Russian air force is sent to Korean periphery. Eventually, 70,000 Russians aid the North Korean and Chinese forces in the fighting by serving in the 64th Independent Fighter Aviation Corps. (3)
NOVEMBER 3, 1950 - JANUARY 24, 1951 CCF INTERVENTION (2,19)
First week of November
Chinese forces attack elements of the X Corps. (1,2,5)
The UN is officially notified of the Chinese intervention. (12)
MacArthur refers to the Chinese intervention as "one of the most offensive acts of international lawlessness of historic record." UN forces hold the Chongchon River line against Chinese forces. Although Chinese intervention has been confirmed, the reality of the Chinese intervention is not officially felt in Washington, D.C. until this date. (16,33,39)
Chinese forces disengage and pull back. (4,12)
A massive air strike is launched as 79 B-29s bomb Sinuijus bridges over the Yalu. The [Korean time] first jet-to-jet battle occurs over Sinuiji when F-80s from the 51st Fighter InterceptorWing battle enemy MiG-15s. Air Force Lt. Russell Brown shoots down an enemy MiG-15. On this date, the Korean Service Medal is authorized. (34,16,33,35,21,2)
A Lt. Cdr. Amen, the commander of Panther squadron VF-111, records another first in the war; he is the Navys first pilot to record a kill against a jet aircraft, a MiG-15. Once again, the Truman administration tries to assure China that it has no hostile intentions toward China. (35,39)
As the 8th Army continues its advance in the west, X Corps continues its advance through North Korean in the east. (9,12,21)
Three hundred thousand Chinese troops have crossed the Yalu and are poised to strike UN forces. (12)
Hoping to avoid further hostilities, Truman once again tries to assure China that he does not intend to extend the hostilities into China. (16)
By this date, the 3rd Division has landed at Wonsan. (12,2,16,33,GG)
Aware of American under-estimates of his troop size, Mao sends a message to his field commander, Marshal Peng Dehuai, celebrating this misconception. He glories in the advantages that this will yield his forces. He also orders Peng to release any UN prisoners of war taken. (4)
Elements of the X Corps, 7th Infantry Division patrols, become the first American troops to reach the Yalu. (5,12,2,34)
Arriving at UN Headquarters is Wu Xiuquan and the rest of the communist Chinese delegation. Under MacArthurs orders, UN forces begin what MacArthur believes will be the "final offensive" of the fighting. At Hyesanjin, the 7th Divisions 17th Regiment reaches the Yalu. In Europe, Americas 7th Army is activated. (1,9,12,16,20,17,2)
For propaganda purposes, Chinese forces release 57 American POWs. (16,33)
Chinese forces mass a counteroffensive. (34)
The Chinese forces of 300,000 launch their second offensive. They strike against the 8th Army by the Chongchon River and against X Corps at the Chosin (Changjin) Reservoir. In fact, while the 8th Army contends with 200,000 Chinese, the Marines at the Chosin Reservoir face three divisions of the Chinese 9th Army Group. Communists forces have destroyed the II ROK Corps near Tokchon. UN forces begin to withdraw. At first underestimating the Chinese forces, the UN Command realizes this new enemys massive strength in numbers. MacArthurs home-by-Christmas drive to the Yalu has ended. (1,5,9,12,16,20,21,2,8)
UN commander Gen. Douglas MacArthur, along with his staff, refuse to condone retreat. Walker reports that the ROK 2nd Corps disintegrated against the Chinese attacks and that the Chinese forces have continued their advance through this gap. In response, the American 1st Cavalry moves near the Taedong River to block the Chinese advance. The Chinese drive between 8th Army forces in western North Korea and X Corps forces in eastern North Korea. (1,8)
Commanders of the Chinese forces assume control of all communist forces. (12)
MacArthur reports to the White House that the Chinese have intervened in full force. Consequently, Truman calls a special meeting to consider the new situation in the Far East. Americans on the homefront are stirred by the newspapers headlines as MacArthur announces that his advance to the Yalu faced unexpected problems, Chinese forces. He states, "We face an entirely new war." At Singalpajin, Task Force Kingston reaches the Yalu. (1,2,34)
Chinese forces decimate Task Force Drysdale. 8th Army commander Walker orders a withdrawal to Pyongyang. (2,21)
X Corps commander Gen. Almond orders a withdraw to Hungnam. In a press conference, Truman implies that the use of the atomic bomb in the Far East is being considered. At Kunu-ri, Lt. Col. Alarich L. Zacherle of the Second Infantry Division orders his battalion colors to be burned to ensure they will not be captured by Chinese forces. The Chinese do overrun the area and inflict numerous casualties. For instance, of 1,079 in the 2nd Engineer Combat Battalion, only 266 officers and troops make it to the safety of Yongdong-Po. Only 145 of the 238 captured survive their captivity. (1,7,39,17,2,11)
Battle of the Chongchon River (9)
Battle of the Chosin (Changjin) Reservoir (2,21,HH)
Chinese forces annihilate Task Forth MacLean/Faith.
They also encircle the 1st Marine Division which is fighting its way toward Hungnam. (34,2)
In the Battle of Kunu-ri, 130,000 Chinese forces attack 8th Army forces. Serving as the
8th Armys rearguard, the 2nd Infantry Division is all but destroyed. (2,21,34)
The 27th Fighter Escort Wing conducts the first F-84 missions of the war. In the United Nations, the ROK is again proclaimed as the only Korean legitimate government. Truman appoints Dwight D. Eisenhower as the first NATO commander. (10,30,36,21)
The 1st Marine Division reaches Yudam-ni. Between Kunu-ri and Sunchon, Communist forces ambush and inflict 3000 casualties on the Turkish and ROK forces, and the American 2nd Infantry Division. Chinese forces overrun UN forces at Memu-Li. (1,12,16,33)
MacArthur urges the Truman administration to allow his forces to bomb bases in Manchuria. 8th Army forces have completed their evacuation to the Pyongyang defensive line. (8,2)
8th Army forces are ordered to abandon the Pyongyang defensive line as supply depots in the capital are put to fire. (2,21)
Task Force 90 elements evacuate Wonsan. Aboard are 10,013 tons of cargo, 1,146 vehicles, 7,009 Korean refugees, and 3,834 military personnel. (2,34)
Mao instructs his commanders in a new strategy, to surround enemy forces but not attack them. Mao presumes that having been surrounded, the UN forces will call for reinforcements, an act which will then expose more enemy troops to attacks by his Chinese forces. (4)
Chinese forces capture Pyongyang. Task Force 90 elements evacuate 5,900 ROK troops and 1,800 American military personnel from Chinnampo. (1,2,16,20,12,II)
The 1st Marine Division begins their final breakout from the Chinese encirclement, and slowly and steadily moves toward Koto-ri. On this day, they reach Hagaru-ri. (1,12,JJ)
December 7, 1950
Elements of Task Force 90 evacuate Inchon. Altogether, 54,741 tons of cargo, 1,404
January 5, 1951
Vehicles, and 68,913 military personnel are evacuated. (2)
The 1st Marine Division reaches Koto-ri. (12)
Continuing southward, the 1st Marine Division arrives at Chinhung-ni. X Corps receives orders from the Far East Command to evacuate Hungnam by the use of Task Force 90. (12,2)
X Corps begins its evacuation of Hungnam. (2,1,16)
Mao orders Marshal Peng and his forces to cross into South Korea and attack in the Kaesong area. (4)
Passing a resolution, the UN seeks a cease-fire. (2)
American F-86 Sabrejets first fly in Korean skies. The 8th Army withdraws across the 38th parallel. Leaving Hungnam, the 1st Marine Division sails for Pusan. The 8th Army establishes a new defensive line at the Imjin River. In a television and radio address, President Truman states that the Soviet Union is trying to overtake free nations, as is evidenced by the actions against South Korea. As a result, America must increase its armed forces strength and numbers, aid other nations by strengthening their defenses, and uphold the United Nations principles. He calls for an expansion in wartime production and materiel, and a military of 3.5 million. He also announces that he will declare a state of national emergency the next day. In response, draft calls accelerate. (20,37,21,2,6,39,34)
Truman declares a state of national emergency. The Office of Defense Mobilization is organized to coordinate mobilization. (21,33,2,39)
Over Sinuiji, Lt. Col. Bruce Hinton of the 336th Fighter Interceptor Squadron records the first F-86 Sabrejet kill against a MiG-15. (35)
Officers of the Chinese Peoples Volunteers receive orders for the third offensive. (1)
In response to the previous days orders, Chinese forces march south of the North Korean capital. (1)
MacArthur imposes military censorship. Leaving Hungnam, the 7th Infantry Division sails for Pusan. Hoping to traumatize ROK forces into abandoning the fight and their American allies, Mao orders Marshal Peng and his forces to especially attack ROK forces south of the 38th parallel. (4,21,2,KK)
The Chinese reject a cease-fire. On the homefront, 7,585 Army reserve officers are called up for active duty, to report in March of 1951. (16,2)
8th Army commander Gen. Walton H. Walker dies in a jeep accident. (2,20,21)
The last ships of the UN forces evacuation leaves the port of Hungnam. Among those aboard is the 3rd Infantry Division. Its industrial complex already in ruins, Hungnams waterfront is destroyed by UN engineers to insure that the enemy does not take advantage of anything left behind by UN forces. In all, the X Corps have evacuated 91,000 civilians and 105,000 military personnel from Hungnam. Maos messages to Marshal Peng show that he believes UN forces should not be driven from the indefensible 38th parallel; clearly he is preparing for a massive spring offensive. The 8th Army assumes control of the X Corps. (1,4,9,12,20,22,21,2,34)
Chinese forces cross the 38th parallel into South Korea. Sent to replace Walker, Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway arrives in Tokyo and meets with UN commander MacArthur. (1,16,33)
Ridgway assumes command of all ground forces on the Korean peninsula since X Corps
[Korean time] is now part of the 8th Army. (16,18,20,33,21,2,39)
Due to the Chinese intervention, orders to MacArthur and his forces have been changed - if possible, maintain a stronghold in South Korea without suffering heavy losses. (5)
Chinese forces begin their third phase offensive. (2,1,16,20,21,34)
January 5, 1951
As a result of the anti-communist fury in America, a Michigan state law is passed, nullifying wills that leave bequests to subversive causes. A law is passed in Indiana to bar subversives from state employment. (27)
In the Masan-Pohang-Sondong-Andong area, the 1st Marine Division soundly defeats guerrilla forces in the "Great Pohang Guerrilla Hunt." Mao still hopes to drive all UN forces from the Korean peninsula as quickly as possible. (34,4)
Against the Chinese forces, UN forces leave Seoul and move to the Pyongtaek-Wonju-
[American time] Samchok line. (1,2,8,9,10,12,20)
Communist forces retake Kimpo airfield. UN forces abandon Inchon. (2)
UN forces establish a new defense line by the 38th parallel but are pushed south by enemy forces. They stop the enemy advance near Wonju and then retake the offensive. (2,1,12,16,33,LL)
In a personal letter to UN commander MacArthur, President Truman does mention withdrawing UN forces from South Korea to nearby islands but only as a last resort. The American delegation votes for another cease-fire resolution at the UN. (5,16)
UN forces are along the 37th parallel. (9)
In "Operation Wolfhound," UN reconnaissance teams seek out the enemy and find him near Osan. (20)
The fighting front stabilizes near the 38th parallel. (18)
Once again, the Chinese reject a cease-fire. Elements of the 8th Army enter Suwon. (16)
Congress approves resolutions which call for the UN to declare Chinese forces aggressors. (39)
JANUARY 25 - APRIL 21, 1951 FIRST UN COUNTEROFFENSIVE (2,19)
Ridgway and his forces begin their first general offensive against the combined North Korean and Chinese forces. As I and IX Corps advance to the Han River, "Operation Thunderbolt" begins. UN forces soon seize Wonju. (1,5,9,12,20,21,2,39,34,MM)
Chinese forces disintegrate near Suwon against the Turkish Brigades bayonet charge. As a result of this charge's success, Ridgway orders all troops in the 8th Army to 'fix bayonets' to build morale. UN forces take Suwon. (2,21,42)
The Battle of Twin Tunnels occurs. In addition to declaring communist China an aggressor, the UN General Assembly votes to end the fighting in Korea by "peaceful means." (1,9,16,32,2,34)
Infantryman and Medal of Honor winner Captain Lewis L. Millett leads his unit in the last deliberate bayonet charge in the military history of America. "S.L.A. Marshall described this as the 'greatest bayonet attack by U.S. soldiers since Cold Harbor in the Civil War." The Peoples Daily and Peking radio report that Koreans have supposedly seen American airdrops of cholera-infected insects. (2,21,42)
The 23rd Infantry Regiment Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division occupies the village of Chipyong. Elements of the 1st Cavalry Division are also present. (2)
"Operation Roundup" begins as the X Corps advances on the eastern flank. (34,20,2,NN)
On Hill 440, a 25th Infantry Division task force annihilates attacking Chinese forces. (34)
Continuing their offensive, 8th Army forces capture Inchon and the Kimpo airfield. (1,33,21)
The Battle of Hoengsong occurs. American forces suffer their largest concentrated loss of lives in the war when communist forces ambush and kill 530 members of the 15th and 503rd Field Artillery Battalions. (34)
Chinese forces launch their fourth-phase offensive. Much of the enemys thrust is into the 2nd Division area. (20,33,2)
Chinese forces strike the Wonju/Chipyong area. (34)
In the Battle of Chipyong, UN forces hold the village despite being surrounded by elements of five to six Chinese divisions. (2,9,16,20,33,21,34)
As Task Force 95 begins its blockade of Wonsan Harbor, the UN naval siege of Wonsan begins and continues for 861 days. This marks the American navys longest, effective seige of an enemy port in history. (34,2)
Once part of X Corps, the 1st Marine Division now becomes part of IX Corps. (2)
The X and IX Corps begin to advance in "Operation Killer." (2,16,20,33,39,34,OO)
March Mao boastfully tells Stalin that once hundreds of thousands of Americans have been slaughtered on the battlefield, Americans will retreat and the communists problems in Korea will be solved. The communists continue their allegations by stating that American artillery has been shooting typhus germs over the Imjin River and American Army forces have sent typhus-infected animals into four "known" locations. (1,11,21)
UN forces begin "Operation Ripper," which is also known as "Operation Courageous." Elements of the 8th Army, X and IX Corps, cross the Han River. (2,16,20,33,39,34,PP)
House of Representatives Minority Leader Joseph W. Martin sends UN commander MacArthur a copy of his speech calling for the use of Chiang Kai-sheks Nationalists troops to open a second front in the Far East fighting. In addition, Martin asks for MacArthurs opinions on the matter. (5)
UN forces recapture Seoul. (1,5,12,8,16,20,21,2,33,QQ)
8th Army forces occupy Chunchon. (2,16,33)
In its second parachute, aerial assault, the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team strikes at Munsan-ni in "Operation Tomahawk." (2,16,21,34)
MacArthur proposes that the communists meet with him in a battlefield conference to end the war. (8,21,33,RR)
The first UN forces cross the 38th parallel. (21)
Elements of the 8th Army reach the 38th. (2,SS)
UN forces reach the Idaho Line. (20)
April The Chinese forces launch a spring offensive. Once lost to UN forces, communist forces attack the Iron Triangle and succeed. The American Navy first uses jet fighters as bombers when two F9F-2B Panthers from the VF-191, the USS Princeton, strike against a railway bridge around Songjin. (2,35)
Elements of the 8th Army cross the 38th parallel. (2,16,33,21)
Advancing toward the Kansas Line, UN forces begin "Operation Rugged." Republican Minority leader in the House of Representatives, Joseph Martin reads a letter from MacArthur on the House floor. In the letter, MacArthur responds to Martins March 8 request by strongly criticizing the Truman administrations foreign policy in the Far East. (20,1,16,21,32,2,TT)
In response to MacArthurs letter, Truman seeks advice from his advisers concerning a dismissal of the UN commander. (1)
The JCS unanimously recommends Truman relieve MacArthur. (39)
Continuing their advance, UN forces begin to reach "Operation Rugged" objectives. UN commander MacArthur is relieved by President Truman. Due to a press leak, the dismissal orders are released to White House reporters at 1:00 AM, even before MacArthur himself is notified. General Matthew B. Ridgway assumes command of the UN forces. (1,2,9,12,16,20,21,32,33,39)
The first major aerial fight occurs between UN and communist forces. The enemy loses 9 MiG-15s. Also, a B-29 formation is attacked by 40 enemy MiG-15s. (34)
Gen. James Van Fleet assumes command of the 8th Army. "Operation Rugged" is completed as all advancing UN forces have reached the Kansas Line. (20,21,2)
MacArthur gives his "Old Soldiers Never Die" speech before both houses of Congress. Continuing the UN advance, I and IX Corps reach the Utah Line. (2,16,20,21)
APRIL 22 - JULY 9, 1951 CCF SPRING OFFENSIVE (2,19)
The Chinese begin an offensive and stop the UN forces advance to Line Wyoming in "Operation Dauntless." Fighting against 250,000 Chinese troops, UN forces withdraw yet halt communist forces north of the South Korean capital. The Far East Command begins its plan of troop rotation. Although other nations send their troops home as units, it decides to send its troops home individually after a certain amount of months served in Korea. (2,12,16,20,21,33,39)
The Battle of Gloucester Hill occurs; on hill 235, Chinese forces surround and cut off the British Bridages 1st Battalion of the Gloucestershire Regiment at the Imjin River. UN forces try to resupply them by air drops, to no avail. Forced to abandon the hill, only 169 of the total 850 in the regiment have not been wounded or killed in the battle. (2,21,39)
With 27 infantry divisions, Chinese forces attack a 40-mile 8th Army front. Denying the South Korean capital to the enemy, 8th Army forces hold. (2)
The Senate unanimously votes to investigate Americas Far East military situations. The Foreign Relations and Armed Services Committees are to be in charge of the investigation. (6)
The Chinese forces break contact. (9)
UN forces retake the Iron Triangle. The foreign minister of North Korea claims that American troops are maliciously spreading smallpox germs. (2,21)
Once again, the 1st Marine Division is assigned to X Corps. (2)
The Senate begins its investigation of American military policy in the Far East. The hearings last eight weeks, until May 31st. Among others, MacArthur, Acheson, Marshall, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff testify. By this date, UN forces have stopped the latest Chinese offensive. (2,6,12,21,39,UU)
The 1st Cavalry Division captures Uijongbu. (21)
Three hundred American Air Force planes stage a massive strike against Sinuiju. (2,34)
Another Chinese offensive, the Soyang offensive, is stopped by American forces. (9,12,16,20,33,21,39,VV)
Along the No-Name Line, the May Massacre occurs when 10 to 12 Chinese divisions strike the 2nd Division. (19,WW)
Task Force 77 sustains its highest number of casualties in a single day, 4 pilots killed and 6 aircraft lost. (34)
Over Sinuiju, 50 communist jets attack the 4th Fighter Interceptor Group. Flying his F-86 Sabrejet, Captain James Jabara becomes the first jet ace in the history of aviation. Under "Operation Strangle," the Far East Air Force begins a massive interdiction campaign against enemy supply lines. To recapture the Kansas Line, UN forces begin "Operation Detonate." (2,XX)
8th Army forces begin a counter-offensive and drive the communist forces back, beyond the 38th parallel. (12,2)
N forces continue their advance north. (9,2,33)
Inje and Hwachon are occupied by 8th Army forces. (16,33)
Still advancing, the 8th Army reaches the Kansas Line. From the Hwachon Reservoir, the 1st Marine Division advances toward the Punchbowl. (20,2)
China joins in the North Korean allegations that Americans are conducting bacteriological warfare. (21)
With the advance of IX and I Corps toward the Wyoming Line, "Operation Piledriver" begins. Secretary of State Dean Acheson states that America is willing to accept a truce line near the 38th parallel. (20,21,YY)
After first meeting on May 31, George Kennan again meets with Jacob Malik to state the US desire for an armistice and reiterate the dangerous state of world affairs. In response, Malik tells Kennan that the US should approach the Chinese and North Koreans since Russia is not a belligerent in the war.
North Korean forces attack the UN-held Punchbowl. (34)
The 8th Army fends off two communists drives and begins driving into the Iron Triangle. (8)
In the war, naval forces sustain their single largest combat loss when a mine hits the destroyer Walke. Thirty-five are wounded and another twenty-six are killed. (34)
UN forces are at the 38th parallel. Fighting occurs at Chorwon and the Iron Triangle. 8th Army forces take the Iron Triangle. (9,12,33)
UN forces reach "Operation Piledrivers" terrain objectives. (20,ZZ)
Signing the Universal Military Training and Service Act, Truman lowers the draft age to 18, extends the draft until July 1, 1955, and increases service time from 21 to 24 months. (2)
In a UN radio program, Russian delegate Jacob Malik calls for the warring parties on the Korean peninsula to begin armistice talks. (6,9,12,16,2,20,21,39)
Chinese radio voices state the desire for a cease-fire. (16,33)
Alan G. Kirk, the American ambassador in Moscow, visits the Soviet Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, A.A. Gromyko and raises questions concerning the Soviet proposals. (3)
On the homefront, seventeen communists are arrested by the FBI in New York City. (27)
American allies in Korea are informed by Assistant Secretary of State Dean Rusk of
[Korean time] Ridgways coming statement concerning cease-fire talks. (39)
Via the Armed Forces radio, on orders from the Truman administration, UN
[American time] Commander Matthew B. Ridgway proposes the idea of armistice talks to Kim Il Sung and Mao Zedong. (3,16,6,20,33,2,39)
Commander of the North Korean Army Kim Il Sung and Commander of the Chinese
[American time] Peoples Volunteers Peng Dehuai agree to begin negotiations. They propose the site at Kaesong. (3,16,6,33,2,AAA)
Ridgway sends his approval of Kaesong, again sending a message via the Armed Forces radio. (6,33)
JULY 9 - NOVEMBER 27, 1951 UN SUMMER-FALL OFFENSIVE (2,19)
After a successful July 8 meeting between liaison officers, the negotiation talks officially begin. (8,12,2,16,21,33,9,20)
UN forces under Van Fleet stage an offensive in the Punchbowl area. Maj. Gen. Clovis Ethelbert Byers replaces Lt. Gen. Edward M. Almond. In California, fifteen communists are indicted. In Dennis v. United States, the Supreme Courts upholds the Alien Registration Act (Smith Act) of 1940, which makes it illegal for anyone to advocate overthrowing any government in America by violent means. (2,27,6,28,21)
UN chief negotiator C. Turner Joy breaks off the talks and tells the communists that the UN must receive equal treatment, press and otherwise, at the site of negotiations. (39)
The talks begin again. (39)
After Forrest P. Shermans death, Adm. William F. Fechteler assumes the role of chief of naval operations. (2)
Negotiators reach agreement on the armistice talks agenda. (16,33)
The 2nd Infantry Divisions 38th Infantry Regiment captures Hill 1179 near the Punchbowl in the Battle of Taeusan. (34)
To fight the communists on the homefront, indictments continue in the United States against seven communists in Hawaii, and six in both Maryland and Pennsylvania. (27)
UN forces launch attacks along the front lines. The battles of Heartbreak Ridge and
Bloody Ridge occur. (9,21,BBB)
A company of armed communist soldiers marches through the Kaesong conference site. (21)
After communist forces violate the neutral zone at Kaesong, UN commander Ridgway breaks off the talks. (8,2)
The negotiation talks resume. (8,21,2)
Once again trying to interrupt enemy supply and communication lines, UN air forces renew "Operation Strangle" strikes by bombing Pyongyang. (21)
Communist forces accuse UN forces of allegedly ambushing some of their troops near Kaesong, and they demand an apology. UN negotiators deny their request for an apology. The AD-5 Skyraiders are initiated into combat. (20,35)
Held by the North Koreans in June and fought over in July, the Punchbowl is again an area of fighting when ROK forces attack nearby. (2)
Accusing the UN forces of conducting air attacks against Kaesong, the
[American time] communists break off the talks after UN negotiators refuse an apology. (8,16,20,21,2,39)
The first UN fighter escort mission occurs when F2H Banshees of VF-172, USS Essex, accompany B-29s to the enemys Rashin marshalling yards. (35)
ROK forces advance to the Punchbowl. (2)
The 1st Marine Division, along with the attached 1st ROK Marine Regiment, attack the September 3 and seize the Punchbowl. (2,20)
2nd Infantry Division forces attack Heartbreak Ridge and Bloody Ridge. (20)
The 2nd Infantry Division takes over Bloody Ridge. (2,21)
Helicopters continue to make their presence known in the war. Another first occurs HRS-1 helicopters complete aerial resupply operations. They carry Marines and gear to the 2nd battalion, 1st Marines near the Soyang River. (2,21,CCC)
Continuing the offensive, the 2nd Infantry Division attacks communist forces on & October 5-15 Heartbreak Ridge. UN forces do succeed. (2,20,21,34)
American Marines attack Hill 749. (34)
Becoming the secretary of state is Robert A. Lovett. (2)
September 18 Marines move north of the Punchbowl, toward the Soyang River. (20)
The 8th Army officially ends segregation in its units. The 69th Field Artillery Battalion and the 14th Infantry Regiment replace the disbanded 159th Field Artillery Battalion, 25th Infantry Division, and the 24th Infantry Regiment. (2)
Advancing to the Jamestown Line are five I Corps divisions. (2)
"Operation Commando" begins. In the next sixteen days, elements of the 1st Cavalry Division capture Hills 418, 313, 334, 287, 247, and 272. (21,DDD)
The negotiators agree on the new talks site of Panmunjom. (2)
The talks begin at Panmunjom. (39)
Continuing the UN advance, IX Corps moves toward the Jamestown Line. (20)
In "Operation Nomad and Polar," UN forces advance to what becomes Line Missouri. (34)
Under "Operation Polecharges" directives, elements of the 1st Cavalry Division capture Hill 346, and capture Hill 230 on October 18. (21)
Called off, the talks begin again at Panmunjom. (8,16,20,21,2,39)
Aviation history records another first when combat troops complete a battlefield movement by helicopter; a HMR-161 helicopter transported 950 soldiers to the front lines and 950 back to the rear area. (2,21)
UN forces hold against a North Korean attack on Heartbreak Ridge. (21)
UN commander Ridgway orders 8th Army commander Van Fleet to begin an active defense and cease the offensive. To defeat guerrilla forces in South Korea, the ROK Army begins "Operation Ratkiller." (20,21,2,34,EEE)
Having been called off again, the truce talks resume. The end of the fighting seems near when negotiators agree on a cease-fire line if a truce is reached in 30 days. (8,9,12,21,39)
NOVEMBER 28, 1951 - APRIL 30, 1952 SECOND KOREAN WINTER (2,19)
In a rare move, 31 F-86s attack a 50-MiG escort of enemy bombers. The F-86s do shoot down 12 enemy aircraft. (34)
After being replaced by the 45th Infantry Division, the 1st Cavalry Division moves to Japan. (2)
The communists and UN negotiators exchange POW lists. (8,12,21,39)
The Korean GI Bill of Rights, Public Law 550, is enacted. Although the courts later overturned it, a Michigan state law requires the registration of communists with the state. (6,27,21)
A massive UN air and artillery campaign is waged against the communist forces. This bombardment lasts the entire month. (20)
UN negotiators propose voluntary repatriation for all POWs. (2,21)
The screening of POWs for repatriation occurs. Often disorder breaks out during the screenings. (16,20,FFF)
After the 40th Infantry Division replaces it, elements of the 24th Infantry Division move to Japan. (2)
Beginning what becomes 18 months of deadlock in the talks, the communist negotiators reject the UN proposal of voluntary repatriation. (2,GGG)
The North Koreans continue their own propaganda assault by accusing UN forces of conducting germ warfare. Continuing his propagandistic pronouncements, the Russian delegate to the UN Jacob Malik accuses American forces of firing toxic gas-filled bullets. (2,21,12)
On Koje-do, communists POWs riot. The communists earnestly begin a massive propaganda campaign accusing American forces of conducting biological warfare. (8,21,39)
The North Koreans again accuse UN forces of conducting germ warfare. (2)
The ROK Army terminates "Operation Ratkiller." (21,2)
The 1st Marine Division is reassigned, to I Corps. (2)
Communist and UN forces fight for Pork Chop Hill. (21)
In hopes of seeking the Republican nomination for president, NATO commander Dwight D. Eisenhower asks to be relieved of his command. At a UN Disarmament Commission meeting in New York, Soviet UN delegate Jacob Malik continues his propagandistic program; he accuses American air forces of dropping germ-infected pork, crows, crackers, ants, spiders, crickets, fleas, flies, yellow leaves, and goose feathers over North Korea. (6,17)
Once again, POWs at Koje-do riot. (9)
Signing Executive Order 10345, Truman extends armed forces enlistments for nine months. (2,34)
During a gunfire support mission near Kojo, North Korea, 30 crew members of the St. Paul die as a result of a powder fire.
Informed on April 20th that 103,000 of 173,000 UN-held POWs state they will refuse repatriation to their homelands, the communists break off the negotiations. (2,8,HHH)
MAY 1 - NOVEMBER 30, 1952 KOREAN SUMMER-FALL 1952 (2,19)
To date, the UN and communist negotiators have agreed on all terms except the prisoner of war question. (3)
Once again, the communist negotiators reject the UN proposal of voluntary repatriation. (2)
The question of communist POW repatriation still stalls the negotiations. Communist POWs capture the commander of the Koje-do POW camp, Brig. Gen. Francis T. Dodd. After Brig. Gen. Charles Colson gives in to their demands, the communist POWs release Dodd. Both Colson and Dodd are demoted to colonels. (2,8,9,12,16,20,21,39)
As Gen. Ridgway becomes the NATO commander, Gen. Mark Clark replaces him as UN commander in the Far East. (3,12,16,20,21,2)
Chinese POWs at the Koje compound riot. In response, the camp commander, Brig. Gen. Hayden L. Boatner changes the camp. Among the other changes, he creates smaller, separated compounds. (21)
Replacing Adm. C. Turner Joy, Maj. Gen. William K. Harrison becomes the chief of the UN negotiation team. (2,39)
Responding to three enemy raids, nine 245th Tank Battalion, 45th Infantry Division tanks conduct raids on the 45ths sector. (34)
Two Chinese companies attack a 179th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division, patrol. (34)
The truce talks are deadlocked on the POW repatriation issue as fighting continues along the stalemated front lines, including Whitehorse Hill. (9)
"Operation Counter" begins. (20,34)
UN forces hold the line and inflict many casualties as the communists attack the hills of Old Baldy, Pork Chop, Capitol, T-Bone, and Heartbreak Ridge. (8,21)
The last major POW riot at Koje-do begins. (21)
Brig. Gen. Boatner, the new commander of the Koje-do POW camp, ends the POW riots. (9,21,39)
The 45th Infantry Division has occupied all objectives, patrol bases, for "Operation Counter." (20,34)
Chinese forces attack Pork Chop Hill, Old Baldy, and Snook (Outpost 9). (34)
The largest air raid of the war to date occurs when 500 UN aircraft attack various dams and electric power systems in North Korea. They strike the Chosen, Kyosen, Suiho, and Fusen dams. (12,16,21,2,39,34)
UN forces conduct massive air raids against the North Korean capital in "Operation Pressure Pump." (21,16)
In various front line sectors, elements of the 7th Marines, 7th Division, and 45th Division engage Chinese forces. (34)
In another raid on Pyongyang, 40 targets are hit by UN aircraft. (34)
UN and communist forces battle for Old Baldy. (34)
The Battle for Bunker Hill occurs.
The largest air raid of the war occurs when 1,403 UN aircraft strike Pyongyang. (2,34)
Four Americans are killed and another four die when a mine sinks the Sarsi around Hungnam. The Sarsi is the last American naval vessel to be lost in the war. (34)
Hitting 150 miles into North Korea is the first guided missile from a carrier. The biggest all-navy raid occurs when 144 carrier-based planes attack and destroy the Aoji, North Korea oil refinery. (8,34)
In a 51-hour seige on Outpost Bruce, 38 American Marines are wounded and 19 are killed. (34)
Chinese forces attack the 65th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division on Outpost Kelly. (34)
Chinese and UN forces continue to fight for Hill 266. (34)
Discussing preserving the Chinese and North Korean positions, Stalin and the Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai also discuss prisoner of war exchanges. (3)
Chinese forces are attacked by the 245th Tank Battalion, 45th Division. (34)
Chinese forces attack UN forces on the central and western fronts. (34)
A stalemate on the battlefield is joined by a stalemate in the armistice talks; UN commander Mark Clark calls off the talks after the question of the POW exchange has become deadlocked. (8,9,16,2)
The 7th Fleet commences its bombardment of enemy supply lines and facilities, marking the beginning of the "Cherokee" strikes. These strikes continue until July of 1953. (34,21)
The Battle for Sniper Ridge occurs. In "Operation Showdown," the 7th Infantry Division strikes Chinese forces near Kumhwa. (34)
A North Korean shore battery hits the USS Lewis, killing 7 crew members. (34)
In a campaign speech, Republican presidential nominee Dwight D. Eisenhower states that he will go to Korea if elected. (16,2,39)
The Battle of the Hook occurs. (34)
In "Operation Decoy," UN naval forces, including the USS Iowa, strike targets near Kojo, North Korea, and Task Force 90 simulates a 1st Cavalry Division Regimental Combat Team landing. The communist forces respond as expected when they send reinforcements near Wonsan. In response, UN forces then move more of their own forces on or near the front lines. UN Commander Clark unifies Far East Command, the Far East Air Force, and the Naval Forces Far East into one command. (18,21,2,III)
In the only direct, known attempt by Russian air forces to attack UN naval forces in the war, Russian MiG-15s dogfight American naval aircraft near the USS Oriskany. (21)
Americans successfully complete their research by detonating a hydrogen bomb device at Eniwetok. (11,17,III1)
At Heartbreak Ridge, UN forces hold against a North Korean attack. (2,34)
Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected president. (12,16,21,2)
Replacing John Muccio, Ellis O. Brigges becomes the American ambassador to the ROK. (2)
DECEMBER 1, 1952 - APRIL 30, 1953 THIRD KOREAN WINTER (2,19)
The International Red Cross proposes an exchange of sick and wounded POWs. (39)
Fulfilling a campaign pledge, president elect Dwight D. Eisenhower completes a three-day Korean tour. (8,12,16,21,JJJ)
On Pongam-do, UN forces suppress a POW riot and breakout attempt. The UN forces intensify their own psychological warfare campaign. (21,20,9,39)
On T-Bone Hill, Chinese forces attack and are repelled by 38th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division forces. Elements of the 179th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division holding Hill 812 are attacked by North Korean forces. (34)
Signing an executive order, President Truman expands the federal loyalty screening program to include Americans working in the United Nations. (6)
Four hundred forty UN aircraft hit Sinaju. (8)
Eisenhower is inaugurated as president. Replacing Dean Acheson, John Foster Dulles becomes secretary of state. Charles Wilson becomes the new secretary of defense. (17,2)
In "Operation Smack," 31st Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division troops attack Spud Hill. (34)
While conducting a raid on Ungok (Hill 101), 15 members of the 5th Marines are killed and 55 are wounded. (34)
Lt. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor assumes command of the 8th Army due to Van [Korean time] Fleets retirement. (2,8,9,12,30,16)
Once again, the UN negotiators propose an exchange of wounded and sick POWs. (9)
Chinese forces fire 8,000 rounds at the Pork Chop Hill-Old Baldy complex. (2)
The talks resume. (12)
Joseph Stalin dies. (9,11,12,21,2)
Communist forces ambush a patrol of the 7th Infantry Division and a patrol of the 2nd Infantry Division. As a result, UN forces sustain 32 KIAs, 7 MIAs, and 55 WIAs. (34)
Task Force 77 aircraft destroy Chongjin, North Korea. (34)
Chinese forces attack 2nd Infantry Division-held Little Gibraltar. (34)
The UN naval bombardment against Kosong marks the largest bombardment by the navy against enemy lines in the war. (34)
Chinese forces attack Pork Chop Hill and Old Baldy. Although UN forces hold on Pork Chop Hill, they do not on Old Baldy. A counterattack to regain Old Baldy is planned for March 27 and 28 but 8th Army commander Taylor cancels them; thinking of the number of potential casualties, he believes that Old Baldy is not strategically important to 8th Army defenses. (2,21,39,KKK)
Chinese force attack and seize Hill 266. (20)
Chinese forces attack Outposts Vegas, Reno, and Carson which the 5th Marines are holding. (34)
Chinese forces attack five 25th Infantry Division outposts. The communist leaders agree to what becomes Operation Little Switch, an exchange of wounded and sick prisoners of war. (2,9,12,39)
Chinese forces seize three of the five 25th Infantry Division outposts they attacked a day earlier. (20)
April 16 - 18
UN and communist forces again clash on Pork Chop Hill. UN forces hold. (2,9,21,39,34)
April 20 - 26
Operation Little Switch takes place at Panmunjom. (2,9,12,34,LLL)
The negotiators return to the peace talks. (2)
MAY 1 - JULY 27, 1953 KOREAN SUMMER-FALL 1953 (2,19)
The UN air forces strike irrigation dams in North Korea. (12)
The 58th Fighter Bomber Wing conducts a raid against Toksan Dam, an irrigation system. (34)
If "conditions arise," the National Security Council has agreed to extend ground and air operations into China and intensify ground operations in Korea. (16)
Chinese forces attack the I Corps area, and the fighting especially turns savage in the Hook area and Nevada Cities areas. 14th Infantry Division forces capture Outpost Elko. (34)
UN negotiators present their final terms and threaten to break off the negotiations if the communist delegation rejects the terms. 25th Division outposts are attacked by Chinese forces. (16)
Upset by the terms of negotiation, the South Korean delegation boycotts the talks. (8)
Rhee exclaims that his country will continue to fight to re-unify all of Korea, even if the ROK must fight alone. (8)
The communist and UN negotiators agree to voluntary POW repatriation. The negotiators have now decided on all issues before them. (2,39,21,8,12,16,MMM)
Unfortunately, the National Assembly of the ROK government rejects the armistice terms. (12)
Chinese forces attack Outpost Harry, but are withheld. (34)
Communists forces begin an offensive, especially against ROK forces. They attack ROK forces near Kumsong. (20,21,12)
Communists forces attack and push ROK forces backs up to two miles back in the east central part of Korea. Launching 184 sorties, the USS Princeton sets the Korean War record for the number of offensive sorties from an aircraft carrier in a single day. Flying 910 sorties, Marine and naval aircraft set the record for the largest combined number of sorties on a single day. (8,20,34)
Continuing their offensive, Chinese forces attack and seize two outposts in the I Corps area. (20)
Trying to sabotage the armistice talks, ROK President Syngman Rhee orders the release of over 25,000 communist prisoners of war. (2,8,12,21,39)
On the homefront, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed for treason amidst much controversy. (27)
Angered by Rhees latest actions, the communist negotiations order the return of the POWs and leave the talks. (8,12)
In response to the communists attacks on ROK forces, the 5th RCT, and the 40th and 45th Infantry Divisions are sent to the front lines to support the ROKs. (34)
As the communist forces attack ROK forces on the field, an American delegation meets with Rhee to convince the ROK government to accept the armistice. (9,12)
Urging the communists to return to the talks, UN commander Clark hopes the warring parties can sign an armistice despite Rhees clear opposition. (8)
Flying 217 combat missions, Marine Air Group 12 sets a new record. A new air combat record is set when UN F-86 Sabrejets destroy fifteen communist MiG-15s without losing one of their own. Replacing Gen. Hoyt Vandenberg, Gen. Nathan F. Twining becomes the Air Force chief of staff. (34,8,2)
Task Force 77 is equipped with weapons of nuclear capabilities. Birmingham, Alabama goes beyond the ordinances other cities have passed; it orders the citys communists to leave city limits within 48 hours. Other cities, like Macon, Georgia, follow its example. Lafayette, Indiana, bans the advocacy of communism. (21,27)
Moving from Japan, the 24th Infantry Division is sent to Korea to help with POW camp security and rear area defenses. (2)
Communist forces attack Pork Chop Hill and do succeed. (2)
Communist forces attack Outpost Berlin and Outpost East Berlin. (34)
UN counterattacks against now communist-held Pork Chop Hill fail. (2)
The communists respond that they want to continue the talks. (8)
The talks resume. 8th Army commander Taylor decides to concede Pork Chop Hill to the enemy; he believes that its location is not valuable enough to justify potential high casualty numbers. The next day, the remaining UN forces on the hill withdrawal. (8,39,2,21,NNN)
The ROK government finally agrees to the terms of negotiations. (9,OOO)
The final communist offensive occurs in the Battle of the Kumsong River Salient which involves elements of the IX Corps. (34)
Nearly 80,000 communists forces attack ROK forces in central Korea. The ROK forces are subsequently driven back sixty square miles. (8,20,2)
Communist forces overrun the 555th Field Artillery Battalion. Since it is now attached to the 2nd Infantry Division, the 187th Airborne Regiment Combat Team returns to Korea from Japan. (34,2,PPP)
Reversing the tide of battle, ROK forces stall and then drive the communist forces back up to five miles in east central Korea. (8)
Communist forces overrun the lone 81 Marines holding Outpost Berlin and Outpost East Berlin. (34)
The ROK II Corps and the IX Corps establish a MLR along the Kumsong River. They stop the communist attack. (20)
UN forces shoot down the last MiG-15 of the war at 1700 hours. (12)
Communist forces attack 3rd Infantry Division forces on Sniper Ridge, and Boulder City which is held by the 1st and 7th Marines. On Hills 119 and 111, American Marines fight their last ground battles. This date marks the last ground war battles for American troops. (34)
Task Force 77 aircraft sets a new record by flying a total of 600 offensive and defensive sorties in one day. (34)
UN forces shoot down the last communist aircraft in the war at 1030 hours. Flying thelast UN air combat mission is a RB-26 from the 162nd Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron. After a Marine AD bombs communist positions, the naval war comes to an end at 9:25 PM. At 1000 hours, the warring parties sign the armistice which goes into effect officially at 2200 hours. At 10:00 PM, July 26, American time, President Eisenhower informs Americans of the armistice in a television and radio address. (2,12,22,23,35,1,8,16,20,21,9,39,34)
Near Ansan, North Korea, an explosion kills five members of the 23rd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division. (34)
The US and ROK sign a mutual security treaty. (21)
Operation Big Switch, the main exchange of prisoners of war occurs. (2,12,21,34)
The Russians successfully conduct a test of a thermonuclear (hydrogen) device. (17,PPP1)
The armistice is approved by the UN General Assembly. (21)
Gen. William F. Dean, a prisoner of war, is released. (2,21)
North Korean Lt. Kum Sok No defects and lands his MiG-15 at Kimpo airfield. (21,36)
The UN command turns over its 22,604 prisoners of war who refused repatriation to the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. (2,21)
The communists turn over their 359 non-repatriates. The Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission keeps the non-repatriates for a total of 120 days, as specified in the armistice agreements. Still refusing repatriation, the POWs are released as they wish. (2,21)
By the years end, America has sent over $1 billion in aid to the French fighting the Viet Minh. (1)
In the Marshall Islands, America successfully explodes its first hydrogen bomb. (17)
The fifth Geneva Conference opens to discuss Asian matters, including Korean reunification. The conference lasts until June 15th. (21,39)
Viet Minh forces defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu. (17)
Four Chinese MiG-15s attack an UN RB-45 over the Yellow Sea. Twelve MiGs dog- fight 8 American F-86s. As a result, two MiGs are shot down and another is damaged. (13)
The 24th Infantry Division relieves the 1st Marine Division which then leaves South Korea. (13,15)
North Korean ground fire shoots down an unarmed American T-6 used for training. One American is killed and another is wounded. (13)
The Russians successfully test a hydrogen bomb. (17)
Leaving South Korea is the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. (15)
North Korean forces fire on a patrol of twelve men. (13)
The US Far East Command officially ends. (15)
After the 1st Cavalry Division replaces them, the 24th Infantry Division leaves the DMZ. The 7th Infantry Division is also on the DMZ. (13,15)
Ground fire from North Korea shoots down an American F-26. (13)
Chinese forces finally leave North Korea. (3,31,21)
After being fired upon by North Korean aircraft, an American pilot makes an emergency crash landing south of the South Korean capital. The pilot dies. (13)
Since the armistice signing, the first American KIA along the DMZ falls on this date. (13)
Attacking Outpost Susan, North Koreans wound one American and kill another. (13)
North Koreans shoot down an American OH-23 helicopter in their territory. Kidnapping two crewmen, they hold them captive for a year. (13)
North Koreans ambush a jeep. As a result, three Americans are KIA and another is WIA. (13)
North Koreans begin their assault on an UNC guard post. Thirteen soldiers of the 1st Cavalry Division are involved in this two-hour engagement. Fighting continues the following nights. (13)
Along the DMZ, North Korean forces attack an American Air Force aircraft. (13)
Flying over the Sea of Japan, an American RB-47 is fired upon by two North Korean MiG-17s. (13)
North Korean ground fire shoots down Army aircraft. (13)
The 1st Cavalry Division is replaced by the 2nd Infantry Division. (13,15)
A North Korean patrol wounds a 2nd Infantry Division sergeant. (13)
One-half mile south of the DMZ, North Koreans ambush an eight-man patrol. Six Americans and one ROK soldier of the 2nd Infantry Division are KIA while another is WIA. Since the armistice signing, this North Korean assault is the most serious attack on American forces. (13)
In an ambush, North Koreans kill a 2nd Infantry Division soldier. (13)
A saboteur uses satchel charges to shatter barracks of the 2nd Infantry Division. Sixteen troops are wounded and two are killed in this attack. (13)
North Koreans attack and kill three 2nd Infantry Division troops. (13)
Forces begin building a barrier fence in the American DMZ sector. The barrier is completed on September 28. (13)
North Koreans ambush a truck carrying 7th Infantry Division troops near Freedom Village. Sixteen are wounded and three are killed. (13)
After a jeep hits a mine, North Koreans fire on the jeep, killing one 2nd Infantry Division soldier and wounding another. (13)
North Korean forces attack and fire 3,000 rounds at C Company, 76th Engineer Battalion near the JSA. Fourteen are wounded and two are killed. (13)
Five 2nd Infantry Division soldiers are wounded and another two are killed after their vehicles hit mines. (13)
North Korean forces destroy seven carloads of military supplies when they blow up a couple of trains by Seoul. This takes place in the 2nd Infantry Divisions area and luckily, there are no casualties. (13)
North Korean forces attack an American boat patrolling the Imjin River. After being wounded by the gunfire, a 2nd Infantry Division soldier drowns. (13)
Following the sighting of 31 North Korean soldiers near Pobwonni, American forces conduct search operations. (13)
January 23 North Koreans seize the American USS Pueblo off Wonsan. Out of the crew of 83, four are wounded and another dies. As a result of the North Korean action, aircraft from the 18th TFW arrive in Kimpo in "Operation Combat Fox." A 32-ship task force, which includes the Ticonderoga and the USS Enterprise, is deployed to the Sea of Japan. Eventually, 3,000 Reservists and National Guardsmen arrive in South Korea. Eleven months after their capture, USS Pueblo crewmen are released on December 23. (13)
North Korean forces kill a 2nd Infantry Division soldier. (13)
An American soldier of the 2nd Infantry Division is killed south of the DMZ. (13)
Four North Korean agent teams trying to infiltrate into South Korea are repelled by elements of the 2nd Infantry Division. (13)
The Defense Department finally authorizes hostile fire pay for soldiers serving north of the Imjin River. (13,QQQ)
Two Americans are killed and two others are wounded when their truck is ambushed by North Korean forces. (13)
In the JSA, UNC guards are attacked by North Korean guards. (13)
An American dies and three others are wounded when a 7th Infantry Division patrol clashes with 50-75 North Korean troops in the southern part of the DMZ. Four North Koreans die in the fighting. (13)
North Korean forces ambush an American patrol near Panmunjom. As a result, 2 members of the 7th Infantry Division are wounded. (13)
Two American soldiers, one of the 2nd Infantry Division and the other of the 7th Infantry Division, are killed in firefights. (13)
One 2nd Infantry Division soldier is killed and three others are wounded in two clashes with North Korean forces south of the DMZ. (13)
One 2nd Infantry Division soldier is killed and four others are wounded in a North Korean attack. (13)
During a clash with eight North Korean troops south of the DMZ, two 7th Infantry Division NCOs are killed. (13)
A force of 15-20 North Koreans attacks three American officers in the JSA. (13)
A firefight occurs in the 2nd Infantry Divisions area. As a result, four North Korean soldiers are killed. (13)
North Korean forces ambush a jeep carrying soldiers of the 2nd Infantry Division. In this attack south of the MDL, two Americans die. (13)
Ambushed by North Korean forces, two 2nd Infantry Division soldiers are wounded and another is killed. (13)
In a firefight with North Korean forces, five 2nd Infantry Division soldiers are wounded and another is killed. (13)
The Department of the Army authorizes the Combat Medic Badge and the Combat Infantryman Badge for selected troops in South Korea. (13)
North Korean forces at a guard post fire on a 2nd Infantry Division work party which is replacing markers along the MDL. On patrol, one American is killed and two others are wounded in a firefight. Unfortunately, the evac helicopter carrying the wounded crashes killing its 5 crew members, two GIs, and one Korean. (13)
Thirty-one crew members of an unarmed EC-131 recon plane are killed when 2 North Korean MiG-17s shoot them down in the Sea of Japan. A 29-ship task force, Task Force 71, is formed to protect future recon flights. (13,15)
A UNC guardpost in the southern part of the DMZ is attacked by North Korean forces. (13)
In a 35-minute firefight, 2nd Infantry Division soldiers repulse North Korean forces. (13)
In the JSA, 15 UNC personnel are attacked by a force of 45 North Korean guards. (13)
North Koreans shoot down an OH-23 helicopter over territory held by the North Koreans. Having been wounded in this action, the crew members are not released until December 3. (13)
Although it was flying a truce flag, North Koreans ambush a truck and kill four 7th Infantry Division soldiers. All four had been shot through the head. (13)
A North Korean soldier is killed by 2nd Infantry Division soldiers near Panmunjom. (13)
August 31 North Korean forces are intercepted and fired upon by 2nd Infantry Division forces, not once but in three incidents. (13)
North Korean ground forces shoot at an American Army helicopter. (13)
North Korean civilians and guards wielding clubs attack UNC security personnel in the JSA. Seven are injured as a result of the attack. (13)
Replacing the Nationalist Chinese delegation, the Peoples Republic of China is formally admitted to the UN. (18)
The 1st ROK Division assumes responsibility for Americas 18.5-mile DMZ sector then under the 2nd Infantry Division. (13,15)
After serving 24 years there, the 7th Infantry Division leaves South Korea. South Korean forces relieve the 2nd Infantry Division on the line. (13,15)
Although tension and danger remains high on the line, hostile fire pay is terminated for American forces in Korea. (13,15)
In the JSA, 30 American personnel are attacked by a force of 120 North Koreans. (13)
North Korean forces on the Imjin River fire on 2 American helicopters. (13)
North Korean forces fire on 2 other American helicopters. (13)
Elements of the ROK Army discover an underground tunnel, built by North Korean forces, which extends 1,000 yards into the UNC occupied and controlled side of the armistice zone. (13)
A naval officer is killed and four other servicemen are wounded when a North Korean device explodes in the tunnels complex. (13)
Ten North Korean guards attack and wound an Army major. (13)
Thirty North Koreans, wielding metal pipes and axes, murder 2 Army officers and wound 4 other American personnel as they were trying to trim a tree in the DMZ. (13,21)
"Operation Paul Bunyan" begins as 26 gunboats and additional forces of 300 troops
support the 2nd Engineer Battalion as they cut down the tree of the August 18th attack. The USS Midway leads Task Force 77.4 to the coast of Korea. Aircraft from Guam, Okinawa, and Idaho are also sent to South Korea. North Koreans fire on and hit one American helicopter. (13,15)
Inadvertently flying into North Korean airspace, a CH-47 Chinook is shoot down by North Korean forces. Although three other crew members die, a pilot survives only to be captured. (13,15)
North Koreans release the captured pilot of the CH-47. (13)
In a heavy fog, some American forces stumble into a North Korean minefield. Four are wounded and one is killed. Another body is recovered 5 days later. (13)
North Korean forces fire on and wound an American soldier. (13)
Under Public Law 99-572, plans for the Korean War Veterans Memorial are approved. (18)
This date marks the end of the DMZ era. The ROK forces at Guard Post Collier assume responsibility for American forces last one-mile DMZ sector which had been under the 503rd Infantry Regiment. Still, American duty continues in the JSA. (15,RRR)
North Korean forces down an American helicopter. The pilot is killed. (15)
This date marks the 50th year of American duty in South Korea. (15)
The dedication of the Korean War Veterans Memorial occurs. (18)
Under Section 1067 the "Program to Commemorate [the] 50th Anniversary of the Korean War" of Public Law 105-261, the fighting in North and South Korea from 1950-1953 is officially called a war. (14)
Fifty Years in Korea (15)
September 8, 1945 - June 30, 1949
American Army Occupation of Southern Korea
The 17th and 32nd Infantry Regiments, 7th Infantry Division accept the surrender of Japanese forces in southern Korea. The 6th, 7th, and 40th Divisions (XXIV Corps) and eventually the 5th RCT make up the American forces.
July 1, 1949 - June 24, 1950
American forces comprise the Korean Military Advisory Group.
June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953
January - October 1954
The 3rd, 40th, 45th, 2nd, and 25th Infantry Divisions are redeployed/leave South Korea.
October 1, 1962 - August 4, 1963
Three 1st Cavalry Division troops are killed in ambushes and firefights on the DMZ.
November 2, 1966 - October 18, 1969
In the DMZ Border War, 44 Americans are killed and another 111 are wounded.
January 23, 1968 - April 1969
In "Operation Combat Fox," the Fifth Air Forces reacts to the North Korean seizure of the USS Pueblo. One sailor dies as a result of the seizure.
January 23 - Summer 1968
In "Operation Formation Star," Task Force 77.5 reacts to the what becomes known as the Pueblo crisis.
*This chronology does not cover all actions, statements, or events before and during the war, and after the armistice signing.
Unless otherwise specified, the units listed are American units. Specific UN units will be featured in the "UN Involvement" web-page.
The ten US Military Campaigns of the Korean War are bold-faced and in capital letters.
The forty-two sources listed below were used to compile this chronology. Few sources mentioned whether the date was in Korean or American time but whenever possible, Korean or American time is mentioned. Concerning the actions with years only, the source(s) did not list specific dates. In post-armistice actions, North Koreans means North Korean forces unless otherwise specified.
+According to Harry G. Summer Jr., Washington, D.C. Eastern Standard Time is ten hours later than Korean time and Eastern Daylight Time is eleven hours later.
A Source 21 also states that Truman and Stalin agreed to General Order One on August 15, 1945.
A1 Source 40 mentions that the Cairo Conference occurred in November.
B Source 21 says this occurred on August 11th.
C Source 11 simply says mid-1949.
D Although source 21 says that KMAG is activated on May 2nd, it also says it was activated on July 1.
E Various sources disagree over the date the Russians exploded an atomic device. For example, source 11 states this happened on August 29th, source 17 states September 3, and sources 21 and 40 simply states this occurred in September.
E1 According to source 30, Truman ordered the establishment of a hydrogen bomb program in March of 1950.
F Source 2 also states July 10th, but source 33 says MacArthur became the UN commander on the 7th.
F1 According to source 1, the 25th Infantry Division arrived in Korea in mid-July. Sources 16 and 33 state that they arrived on July 18th.
G Source 8 mentions that the first communist atrocities were reported on July 11th. Seven American bodies had been found, shot in the head, their hands tied behind their backs.
H According to source 33, the B-29 bombardment of North Korea began on July 6th.
I Source 40 did mention that the Senate Republicans rejected the findings of the Tydings Commission.
J Source 2 also mentions that the ROK forces were transferred on July 14th.
K Source 9 says this occurred between July 5 -August 4.
L According to source 34, the fighting in Taejon occurred on July 19th-20th.
M Source 20 mentioned that Walker gave this speech on July 31st.
N According to sources 9 and 12, the first Battle of the Naktong Bulge was from August 5-19.
O Source 21 says its August 18-27.
P Source 21 states MacArthurs criticism is announced on August 20th while source 40 states that its the end of August.
Q Sources 9, 12, and 8 mention that the Second Battle of the Naktong Bulge occurs between August 27th-September 15th.
R Source 34 mentions that the 8th Army breakout from the Pusan Perimeter was from September 16-27.
S According to source 12, UN forces discovered 500 ROKs, 7000 civilians, and 40 Americans.
T Source 2 mentions that UN forces captured Kimpo on September 18th.
U Source 16 says the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team arrived at Kuiupo Airport on the 24th.
V According to source 2, MacArthur mades this announcement on the 27th.
W There is much disagreement over the exact date X Corps liberated Seoul. Sources 3,10,12,20,and 34 state this occurred on the 28th. Sources 1,8,9,16,17,33 mention this happened on the 26th. Source 21 states this occurred on the 27-28th while source 2 mentioned that the 7th Infantry Division and 1st Marine Division liberated Seoul on the 27th. Source 2 also mentioned that on September 28th, UN forces had cleared the city of the enemy.
X Source 2 says Mao made the decision to intervene on October 4th.
Y Source 40 states this occurred on October 2nd.
Z There is much disagreement over this date. Source 17 mentions October 13th, source 9 says October 12th, and source 32 states October 16th. Source 3 simply says the Chinese intervention occurred in the last half of October, and source 5 states that the Chinese began to intervene during the Wake Conference. Source 31 simply states the intervention began in October of 1950.
AA Source 2 says this happened on October 17th.
BB Source 12 states that UN forces found the grizzly discovery at Suchon on October 21st.
CC Source 2 mentions that the 1st Marine Division landed at Wonsan between October 26-28.
DD Source 34 says its November 1st and at Chonggodo.
EE Sources 34 and 2 say this Unsan battle was from November 1-2.
FF According to source 34, the fighting lasted from November 2-7.
GG There is much disagreement over this date. For instance, source 2 states the 3rd Division landed between November 5-17 while source 12 says it landed from November 15-17. Then, sources 16 and 33 state they landed on November 12th.
HH Source 34 says the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir lasted from November 27-December 9.
II Source 12 also mentions that communist forces captured Pyongyang on December 4.
JJ Source 21 states that the 1st Marine Division reached Hagaru-ri on December 4th.
KK According to source 2, MacArthur imposed military censorship on December 20th.
LL According to sources 1,12,16, and 33, UN forces began this offensive on January 8th.
MM Source 34 states that "Operation Thunderbolt" lasted until February 20th.
NN Source 21 says "Operation Roundup" began on February 4, and source 34 mentions that it continued until February 24th.
OO Source 34 says "Operation Killer" continues until March 7th.
PP Source 34 mentions that "Operation Ripper" continued until April 4th.
QQ Besides what the fore-mentioned sources say for March 14-15, there is much disagreement over the date Seoul was recaptured by UN forces. For example, source 10 says its the 10th of March while source 12 says its the 18th. Source 40 says its March 24th.
RR Source 40 mentions that MacArthurs proposal was an ultimatum to the communist forces.
SS Sources 16 and 33 say that 8th Army forces reached the 38th on March 22nd.
TT Source 34 states "Operation Rugged" continued until April 15, and source 21 says Operation Rugged" and "Operation Dauntless" together lasted from April 1-22.
UU According to source 34, the Chinese offensive ended on April 29th.
VV Source 34 says this Chinese offensive began on May 17th. Source 20 says it ended on May 23rd while source 2 says it ended on May 20th.
WW According to source 34, the May Massacre occurred on May 16-21.
XX Sources 21 and 40 mention that "Operation Strangle" began on June 2nd. Source 34 says "Operation Strangle" continued until September 20th and "Operation Detonate" lasted until June 8th.
YY According to source 34, "Operation Piledriver" began on June 3rd.
ZZ Source 34 states that "Operation Piledriver" ended on June 12th.
AAA Source 40 mentions this agreement is reached on July 1st.
BBB According to source 34, the Battle for Bloody Ridge lasted from July 18-September 5.
CCC Source 34 mentions that on September 21st, in "Operation Summit," Sikorsky S-55 helicopters recorded a first when they deployed a combat unit of 228 Marines.
DDD Source 34 states that "Operation Commando" continued until October 9th.
EEE According to source 2, "Operation Ratkiller" began on December 2nd, under Task Force Paik.
FFF Source 9 mentions that the POW screenings began April 2nd, and source 40 says April 8th.
GGG Source 12 says the negotiators rejected this on January 3rd.
HHH Source 16 states that the communist negotiators were informed on April 19th that 62,000 of the 132,000 communist POWs would refuse repatriation.
III Source 2 says it was a simulated landing of the 8th Regimental Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division.
III1 According to source 30, this occurred on October 30th.
JJJ Source 2 states that the dates for Eisenhowers Korean tour were December 5-8.
KKK Source 34 mentions that the Chinese attacks began on March 23-24.
LLL According to sources 2, 21, and 40, Operation Little Switch ended on May 3rd.
MMM Sources 8,12, and 16 state that this POW agreement was made on June 8th. Source 20 says that the negotiators agreed on all points of negotiation on July 19th.
NNN Source 34 mentions that the UN forces were ordered to withdraw on July 10th.
OOO According to source 12, the ROK government finally agreed on July 11th.
PPP Source 34 states that the 187th Regiment Combat Team was attached to the 2nd Infantry Division during the Battle of the Kumsong River Salient.
PPP1 According to source 11, this occurred on August 12th.
QQQ Source 18 says it became effective on April 1st.
RRR According to source 13, ROK forces assumed responsibility for the last sector of the American DMZ line on October 4th.
(1) Spurr, Russell. Enter the Dragon: Chinas Undeclared War Against the U.S. in Korea, 1950-51. New York: Newmarket Press, 1988.
(2) Summer, Jr., Harry G. Korean War Almanac. New York: Facts on File, 1990.
(3) Petrov, Vladimir. "Soviet Role in the Korean War Confirmed: Secret Documents Declassified." Journal of Northeast Asian Studies 113 (Fall 1994): 42-67.
(4) Christensen, Thomas J. "Threats, Assurances, and the Last Chance for Peace: The Lessons of Maos Korean War Telegrams." International Security 17 (Summer 1992): 122-54.
(5) Guttmann, Allen, ed. Korea and the Theory of Limited War. With an Introduction by Allen Guttmann. Problems in American Civilization Series. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1967.
(6) Wiltz, John Edward. "The Korean War and American Society." In The Korean War: A 25-Year Perspective, ed. Francis H. Heller. 112-58. With a Preface by Francis H. Heller. Lawrence: Regents Press of KS, 1977.
(7) Streeby, Larry. "Trip to Korea." Bulletin-Second Infantry Division Korean War Veterans Alliance. (Winter 1999): 12.
(8) Nebraska Korean War Veterans Reunion. Chronology.
(9) Fehrenback, T.R. This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness. New York: MacMillan, 1963.
(10) Kim, Yung-kwon, and Lee Soo-jung, eds. A Handbook of Korea. With a Foreword by Kim Seong Jim. Rev. ed. Seoul: Korean Overseas Information Service, 1979.
(11) Gaddis, John Lewis. We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. Council of Foreign Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
(12) Korea 1950-1953 Map. Honolulu: E.L. Brady, 1987.
(13) "Dangerous Duty on Koreas DMZ." VFW Magazine, March 1992. 28-29.
(14) Public Law 105-261. 17 October 1998. Section 1067 "Program to Commemorate 50th Anniversary of the Korean War." Photocopy.
(15) "In Defense of Northeast Asia." VFW Magazine September 1995. 36-37.
(16) Arizona Korean War Memorial Dedication Pamphlet. Chronology.
(17) Halberstam, David. The Fifties. New York: Villard Books, 1993.
(18) Martin J. OBrien, The Korean War: Forgotten Soldiers of a Forgotten War . . . No Longer Forgotten. 1997.
(19) Joe Matthews. Interview by Lynnita Sommer, 8 November 1998. Transcript. Korean War Project. Douglas County Museum, Tuscola, IL.
(20) Ridgway, Matthew B. The Korean War: How We Met the Challenge, How All-Out Asian War Was Adverted, Why MacArthur Was Dismissed, [and] Why Todays War Objectives Must be Limited. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967.
(21) Sandler, Stanley, ed. The Korean War: An Encyclopedia. NY:, Garland Publishing, 1995.
(22) Department of State. "The Presidents Message to the Nation." Armistice in Korea: Selected Statements and Documents. Far Eastern Series 61. 1953.
(23) Department of State. "Text of Armistice Agreement." Armistice in Korea. Selected Statements and Documents. Far Eastern Series 61. 1953.
(24) "Achesons Phone Call to the President." 24 June 1950. Harry S. Truman Library. Student Research File. B. File. Korean War: Responses to North Koreas Invasion. Boxes 1 and 2. Papers of George M. Elsey.
(25) "Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress." 2 July 1950. Harry S. Truman Library. Student Research File. B File. Korean War: Responses to North Koreas Invasion. Boxes 1 and 2. Papers of George M. Elsey.
(26) "Presidents Conference." 29 June 1950. Harry S. Truman Library. Student Research File. B File. Korean War: Responses to North Koreas Invasion. Boxes 1 and 2. Papers of George M. Elsey.
(27) Fried, Richard M. Nightmare in Red: The McCarthy Era in Perspective. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1990.
(28) Nash, Gary B., Julie Roy Jeffrey, John R. Howe, Peter J. Frederick, Allen F. Davis, and Allan M. Winkler, eds. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society. 4th ed. Vol. 2. New York: Longman, 1998.
(29) Sawyer, Robert K. Military Advisors in Korea: KMAG in Peace and War. Ed, Walter G. Hermes. United States Army Historical Series. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1962.
(30) Dawson, Joseph G. III, ed. Commanders in Chief: Presidential Leadership in Modern Wars. With a Foreword by Raymond G. OConnor. Modern War Studies. Lawrence, KS: Univ. Press of KS, 1993.
(31) Brogan, Patrick. The Fighting Never Stopped: A Comprehensive Guide to World Conflict Since 1945. New York: Random House, 1990.
(32) LaFeber, Walter. America, Russia, and the Cold war 1945-1996. With a Foreword by Robert A. Divine. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997.
(33) Voorhees, Melvin B. Korean Tales. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1952.
(34) "Americas War in Korea: A GIs Combat Chronology, 1950-1953." VFW Magazine. June/July 1993. 28-34.
(35) Jackson, Robert. World Military Aircraft Since 1945. New York: Scribner, 1979.
(36) Scutts, Jerry. Air War over Korea. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1982.
(37) Futrell, Robert Frank. The United States Air Force in Korea 1950-1953. With a Foreword by Richard H. Kohn. Rev. ed. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1983.
(38) Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995.
(39) Kaufman, Burton I. The Korean War: Challenges in Crisis, Credibility, and Command. America in Crisis Series. New York: Knopf, 1986.
(40) Hart-Landsberg, Martin. Korea: Division, Reunification, and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1998.
(41) Martin, James Kirby, Randy Roberts, Steven Mintz, Linda O. McMurry, and James H. Jones, eds. America and its People. 2nd ed. Vol 2. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.
(42) Blair, Clay. The Forgotten War America in Korea 1950-1953. New York Doubleday, 1987.
Compiled by Tricia North with help from Dick Wainwright, Frank Bensley, Marty OBrien, John Mallon, and Joe Matthews. Edited by Dick Wainwright and Frank Bensley.
Copyright © 1998 Korean War Veterans National Museum and Library
Of Interest to Korean War Veterans
Copyright © 1998 Korean War Veterans National Museum and Library